Dysménorrhée chez les Élèves et Étudiantes à Yaoundé : Facteurs Associés et Aspects Socioculturels

Jeanne Hortence Fouedjio, Florent Ymele Fouelifack, Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue, Lionel Tame, Ines Laury Noumedem, Loïc Dongmo Fouelifa, Robinson Enow Mbu

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction.: la dysménorrhée est une situation fréquente chez les femmes en âge de procréer. Elle affecte la qualité de vie des filles et est la principale cause d’absentéismes scolaires chez les adolescentes. Notre étude avait pour objectif d’analyser les facteurs associés à la dysménorrhée et les aspects psychosociaux de la dysménorrhée chez les élèves et étudiantes à Yaoundé. Méthodologie. L’étude était transversale analytique, réalisée dans 2 établissements secondaires et un établissement supérieur de la ville de Yaoundé, du 1er Décembre 2017 au 30 Juin 2018 soit une durée de 6 mois. Étaient incluses toutes les élèves et étudiantes âgées de 15 ans et plus, ayant leurs menstruations et au moins un niveau d’instruction de la classe de seconde. L’échantillonnage était stratifié en grappe de 2 niveaux dans l’un des établissements et consécutif dans un autre. Le rapport de côte a été utilisé pour rechercher les associations entre les variables et la valeur P ˂ 0,05 était considérée significative. Résultats. Parmi les 1059 participantes, 800 avaient des dysménorrhées soit une prévalence de 75,5%. La moyenne d’âge était de 18,88 ± 3,62 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 15 à 45 ans. Les facteurs de risque de la dysménorrhée étaient : indépendamment associés aux dysménorrhées étaient les antécédents familiaux de dysménorrhée [OR (IC à 95%) : 4,20(3,02-5,83)] et le stress [OR (IC à 95%) : 2,16(1,55-3,02] ; tandis que la durée des règles ≤ 3 jours [OR (IC 95%) : 0,31(0,12-0,82)] est un facteur protecteur. La dysménorrhée était considérée comme un sujet tabou par 23,6 % des participantes. Conclusion. Les antécédents familiaux de dysménorrhée et le stress sont des facteurs de risque de la dysménorrhée. Certaines personnes affectées préfèrent ne pas en parler. Nous recommandons de sensibiliser les femmes sur la dysménorrhée et les aider à lutter contre le stress.
ABSTRACT
Introduction. Dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women of childbearing age. It affects the quality of life of girls and is the leading cause of teenage school absenteeism. We conducted this study whose general objective was to analyze the factors associated with dysmenorrhea and the psychosocial aspects of dysmenorrhea among students in Yaoundé. Methodology. The study was transversal analytical, carried out in 2 secondary schools and a higher establishment of the city of Yaoundé, from 1st December 2017 to 30th June 2018 for a duration of 6 months. Included were all students aged 15 and over, having their menstrual period and at least one level of instruction in the second grade. Sampling was stratified into two levels in one facility and one in another. The odds ratio was used to search the associations between the variables and the P value ˂ 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Among 1059 participants, 800 had dysmenorrhea (75.5%). The average age of our study population was 18.88 ± 3.62 years with extremes ranging from 15 to 45 years. The risk factors for dysmenorrhea were: independently associated with dysmenorrhea were family history of dysmenorrhea [OR (95% CI): 4.20 (3.02-5.83)] and stress [OR (95% CI) %): 2.16 (1.55-3.02), while menstrual period ≤ 3 days [OR (95% CI): 0.31 (0.12-0.82)] is a protective factor Dysmenorrhea was considered a taboo subject by 23.6% of participants.
Conclusion: Familial antecedents of dysmenorrhea and stress are risk factors for dysmenorrhea. Some affected people prefer not to talk about it. We recommend sensitizing women about dysmenorrhea and helping them fight stress.


Keywords


Dysménorrhée, élèves, étudiants, Yaoundé

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