Screening Phytochimique, Activité Cicatrisante et Toxicité Aigüe de la Sève des Racines de Musanga cecropioides et de l’Extrait Aqueux de la Plante Entière Acmella caulirhiza sur des Rats de la Souche Wistar

Tatiana Léonce Azame, Estella Tembe Fokunang, Borgia Njinkio Nono, Joseph Ngoupayo, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. La peau, est un organe complexe dont la fonction première est la protection de l’organisme contre les agressions extérieures. La perturbation de son intégrité, entraîne une plaie. Malgré le progrès en matière de soins des plaies, celles-ci restent un problème de santé publique dont l’incidence va augmenter avec l’évolution des pathologies comme le diabète et l’obésité. Musanga cecropioides, appartient à la famille des Moracées et est fréquemment retrouvé dans les forêts tropicales d’Afrique. Objectifs. Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer l'activité de cicatrisation des plaies et la sécurité de la sève des racines de Musanga cecropioides et de l'extrait aqueux de la plante entière Acmella caulirhiza. Méthodologie. Nous avons d’abord effectué un criblage qualitatif des 2 usines à l’aide de procédures standard avec des concentrations d’usine de 1%. Pour évaluer l'activité de guérison, nous avons eu huit groupes de six rats avec des plaies induites sur sept groupes, après l'anesthésie, puis le rasage et la coupe des lambeaux de peau après avoir placé un carré de 2,5 cm de longueur et de largeur. Pendant 21 jours, trois doses de notre extrait aqueux (125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, plus 3 ml de sève) sous forme de pâte ont été administrées sur les plaies après nettoyage à la sève comme traitement pour certains groupes. Lmesitran a été utilisé comme contrôle positif. L'activité cicatrisante était évaluer par l'apparence, la vitesse de contraction, la réduction de la surface de la plaie et une analyse des coupes histologiques des plaies était faite tous les quatre jours. La toxicité orale aiguë de nos deux usines a été évalué conformément à la ligne directrice 420 de l’OCDE. Résultats. Le criblage de la plante entière Acmella.c a révélé: la présence de coumarines, de mucilages et de polyphénols. Celle de Musanga c a révélé la présence de saponosides et de polyphénols. En ce qui concerne l’évaluation de l’activité cicatrisante, les groupes ayant reçu le traitement à base de plantes (groupe huit), présentaient moins de plaies enflammées que les témoins. Les plaies traitées avec les plantes présentaient une meilleure évolution avec des valeurs significatives au jour 16 avec p <0,05 et 21. Nous avons observé une augmentation non significative du poids corporel des rats, aucune perte d'appétit et aucun décès n'ont été enregistré. La DL50 n'a pas été déterminée pour les deux plantes à 5000 mg/kg. pour Acmella.c et 3 ml/100g pour Musanga.c. Conclusion. L’utilisation de Musanga.c et Acmella.c entraîne une légère accélération du processus cicatriciel. Ceci confirme l’activité cicatrisante des deux plantes qui leur est attribuée en médecine traditionnelle. Malgré la bonne tolérance constatée chez les rats, les plantes doivent être utilisées avec précaution.
ABSTRACT
Introduction. The skin is a complex organ whose main functions is the protection of the body against external aggressions. The disruption of its integrity causes a wound. Despite progress in wound care, wounds remain classified as public health problems, the incidence of which will increase with the development of certain diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Musanga cecropioides, belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently found in the tropical forests of Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing activity and safety of Musanga cecropioides roots sap and the aqueous extract of the whole plant Acmella caulirhiza. Methodology. We first carried out a qualitative screening of our two plants using standard procedures in with plant concentrations at 1%. Then the healing activity itself was evaluated. For this, we had eight groups of six rats with wounds induced on seven groups, after anesthesia, then shaving and cutting skin flaps after placing a square of 2.5 cm length and width. For 21 days three doses of our aqueous extract (125mg/kg, 250mg/kg, 500mg /kg, plus 3 mL of sap) in the form of paste were administered on the wounds after cleaning with the sap as treatment for certain groups. Lmesitran was used as a positive control. We evaluated the appearance, rate of contraction, reduction of wound surface, and a histological analysis of sections of the wounds was made every 4 days. Acute oral toxicity of our plants has been assessed according to OECD Guideline 420. Results. Screening of the whole plant Acmella.c revealed: the presence of coumarins, mucilages, and polyphenols. That of Musanga.c revealed the presence of saponosides and polyphenols. Evaluation of the appearance of wounds showed that the groups that received the plant-based treatment (group eight) had less inflamed wounds as compared to the control. Wounds treated with the plants showed better evolution with significant values on day 16 with p <0.05 and 21. We observed a non-significant increase in body weight of rats, no loss of appetite and no deaths. The LD50 was not determined for both plants at 5000 mg/kg for Acmella.c and 3Ml/100g for Musanga.c. Conclusion. The use of Musanga.c and Acmella.c resulted in a slight acceleration of the wound healing process. This suggests that both plants have a healing activity completely consistent with their recognized efficacy in traditional medicine. Although both plants were well tolerated by rats, they will have to be used with caution.


Keywords


Acmella caulirhiza; Musanga cecropioides; Cicatrisation; Toxicité aigüe.

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