Épidémiologie de la Maladie Rénale Chronique à l’Hôpital Général de Douala : Étude Comparative entre Hommes et Femmes

Hermine Fouda, Aristide Nono, Francois Kaze, Marie-Patrice Halle, Maimouna Mahamat, Gloria Ashuntantang

Abstract



RÉSUMÉ
Objectif. L’objectif de cette étude était de comparer le profil épidémiologique de la maladie rénale chronique (MRC) chez les hommes et les femmes vus en consultation externe à l’Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD). Patients et méthodes. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale descriptive rétrospective de 18 mois (janvier 2015 à juillet 2016). Nous avons inclus tout patient avec le diagnostic de maladie rénale chronique. La maladie rénale chronique était définie et classée selon les critères de la Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) de 2012. Les paramètres comparés étaient l’âge, les facteurs de risque, les étiologies, les paramètres biologiques sanguins et l’évolution. L’analyse statistique a été faite avec le logiciel IBM SPSS 20. 0 et le seuil de significativité fixé à p<0,05. Résultats. Nous avons recruté 188 patients dont 64 femmes (34%). L’âge moyen était de 56,45 ±13,9 ans chez les femmes et 56,45 ± 14,62 chez les hommes. Concernant les facteurs de risque de la MRC, seule la goutte était significativement moins fréquente chez la femme (p=0,015). La néphropathie diabétique et la néphropathie tubulo-interstitielle chronique étaient moins prévalentes chez la femme. Le débit de filtration glomérulaire estimé (DFGe) moyen chez les femmes était de 23,04 ± 21,24 ml/min/1,73 m2 et de 28,36 ± 23,76 ml/min/1,73 m2 chez les hommes (p=0,134). 47% des patients (43% des hommes ≠ 55% des femmes, p=0,437), ont été vus d’emblée au stade terminal et ont été perdus de vue après la première consultation (hommes 60,5% ≠ femmes 56,25%, p= 0,64). Conclusion. L’épidémiologie de la MRC est similaire dans les deux sexes à l’HGD. Des études prospectives multi centriques avec des échantillons plus importants sont nécessaires pour confirmer ces résultats.

ABSTRACT
Aim. Our aim was to compare the epidemiologic profile of chronic kidney disease between men and women seen in the nephrology outpatient clinic of the Douala General Hospital. Patients and methods. This was a cross sectional descriptive retrospective study of 18 months. We included patients with a definite diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD was diagnosed according to the 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We specifically evaluated the age, risk factors, etiologies, blood analysis parameters, and evolution Statistical analysis was done with the IBM SPSS statistics 20.0 and p value was <0.05. Results. 188 patients (64 women, 34%) were included. The mean age was 56.45± 13.9 years for women and 56.45 ± 14.62 years for men. Concerning CKD risk factors, only gout was significantly less frequent in women (p=0.015). Diabetic nephropathy and chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis were more prevalent in men. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in women was 23.04± 21.24 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 28.36± 23.76 ml/min/1.73 m2 in men (p=0.134). 47% of patients (43% of men ≠ 55% of women, p=0.437) were seen at end stage disease and were loss after the first consultation (men 60.5%≠ women 56.25%, p=0.64). Conclusion. Epidemiologic pattern of CKD seems to be similar in men and women in Douala. Multi-centric prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.


Keywords


Maladie rénale chronique - Femme - Douala

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References


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