Biodégradation Aérobie du Gasoil par des Souches de Bacillus Sp et Sphingomonas Paucimobilis Isolées des Eaux des Plages de Kribi et Limbe, Cameroun

Claudine Ntsama Essomba, Lucie Leme B, Larissa Abologo A, Marie Christine Tombedi, Charles F Bilong Bilong

Abstract



RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Les plages abritent de nombreuses activités humaines. Toutefois, leur intégrité est menacée par des polluants de natures diverses dont les hydrocarbures. Dans le but de contribuer à la préservation de l’environnement marin, une étude expérimentale consistant en la détermination des capacités de dégradation du gasoil commercial par des bactéries a été conduite. Matériel et Méthodes. L’activité, en aérobiose, sur du gasoil commercial, de souches de Bacillus sp et de Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolées des eaux de plage de Kribi et Limbé a été évaluée durant 35 jours. Le pourcentage de dégradation des hydrocarbures était par spectroscopie infrarouge à transformer de Fourier avec Réflexion Totale Atténuée. Les principaux indicateurs de biodégradation d’un hydrocarbure ont été mesurés. Résultats : Les deux souches bactériennes ont été capables de métaboliser les principaux hydrocarbures du gasoil. La durée de la phase de latence et le pourcentage de dégradation en fin d’expérience étaient fonction de la bactérie et de l’hydrocarbure. Les pourcentages de dégradation les plus élevés ont été observés vis-à-vis des hydrocarbures aliphatiques cycliques et le plus faible vis-à-vis des hydrocarbures aromatiques monocycliques. Les autres indicateurs atteignaient généralement des valeurs maximales au 20ème jour. Conclusion. Bacillus sp et de Sphingomonas paucimobilis seraient dotées d’oxygénases responsables de l’activité métabolique constatée. L’augmentation coordonnée des indicateurs de suivi suggère que les produits issus de la biodégradation du gasoil seraient utilisés pour la croissance bactérienne. Une association de ces deux microorganismes pourrait si elle s’avérait synergique ou additive être bénéfique.
ABSTRACT
Introduction. Beaches play host to many human activities. However, their integrity is threatened by pollutants of various kinds, such as hydrocarbons. In order to contribute to the preservation of the marine environment, an experimental study was carried out, consisting of the determination of the degradation capacities of commercial gasoline by bacteria. Material and Methods. The activity, in aerobiosis, on commercial gasoline of strains of Bacillus sp and Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolated from the beach waters of Kribi and Limbe was assessed for 35 days. The percentage of degradation of the hydrocarbons was obtained by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The main indicators of biodegradation of a hydrocarbon were measured. Results. The two bacterial strains were able to metabolize the main hydrocarbons of gasoline. The duration of the lag phase and the percentage of degradation at the end of the experiment depended on the bacteria and the hydrocarbon. The highest percentages of degradation were observed with respect to the cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lowest with respect to the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The other indicators generally reached maximum values on the 20th day. Conclusion. Bacillus sp and Sphingomonas paucimobilis possess oxygenases responsible for the observed metabolic activity. The coordinated increase in monitoring indicators suggests that products derived from the biodegradation of gasoline would be used for bacterial growth. An association of these two microorganisms could be beneficial if it proved to be synergistic or additive.


Keywords


Biodégradation, gasoil, hydrocarbures, environnement, bactéries

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