Sleep patterns in hypertensive patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital:A Clinical Study

Mengnjo Michel Karngong
Internal Medicine, University of Yaounde 1
September, 2014
 

Abstract

There is a dual relationship between sleep quality and hypertension (HTN). Although disordered sleep patterns predispose to hypertension, little is known on the effect of the latter on sleep patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We therefore aimed to describe sleep patterns in hypertensive subjects (HTS) and age- and sex-matched normotensive subjects (NTS) in Yaoundé- Cameroon.
METHODS
In our cross-sectional comparative study, HTS and demographically age- and sex-matched NTS were screened using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). Data were compared between both subjects with level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05 and logistic regression analysis applied for body mass index (BMI).
RESULTS
Overall, 50 HTS and 54 age- and sex-matched NTS were enrolled. HTS were significantly "poor sleepers" (global PSQI>5) (p=0.016), “short sleepers” (<5hrs) (p=0.027) and had a higher risk of having OSA (p=0.01), than NTS. After adjusting for BMI, there was a significant association between sleep quality (aOR=4.18, p=0.005), OSA (aOR=5.15, p< 0.001) and HTN. There was no clear sleep trend observed with respect to the severity of HTN (according to JNC8 classification). Although not statistically significant, there were marked differences in the sleep patterns of those with controlled compared to those with uncontrolled HTN.
CONCLUSION
Correlated to other studies, this first study in Cameroon suggests that hypertension is associated with disordered sleep pattern. These preliminary clinical tools seem convincing in the assessment of sleep patterns in hypertension in our resource-limited context.
KEY WORDS
sleep, sleep disorders, hypertension


********************************************************************************************