The prevalence of pre-diabetes in Nkongsamba and Ndoungue in the litoral region of cameroon

MOKI CHRIS USANI (chris_moki@yahoo.com)
Public health, uy1
June, 2014
 

Abstract

SUMMARY
There is evidence of increase in the trend of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes worldwide. This is a heavy burden on the global economy especially in developing countries. Many research are focused on diabetes and little is done on pre-diabetes which is an intermediate state between normoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Pre-diabetes is not only related to an increased risk of diabetes and its complications but there is also accumulating evidence to suggest damage on kidney and nerves already at the pre-diabetic stage. Therefore, knowledge on the proportion of individuals affected by this condition is crucial for intervention at the pre-diabetic state. The studies carried out on pre-diabetes suggest an increase in its prevalence and some studies postulate a linear relationship between the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes. In our local setting, little is known on pre-diabetes. the aim of our studies is to give information about the prevalence of pre-diabetes in an urban and rural areas of Nkongsamba.
We carried out a cross sectional studies with a sample size of 131 participants which started from November 2013 to May 2014. We evaluated the prevalence of pre-diabetes in the general population and in the urban and rural settings. To attain our objectives, we used pretested questionnaires to get participants information, blood samples were collected to get measurements of lipid profile, and glycaemia of all participants, and also physical examination was done to get anthropometric parameters of all participants. We used the glucometer to measure glycaemia after collecting a drop of capillary blood from the pulp of the finger. We also collected 4ml of blood into an EDTA tube for the measurement of lipid profile. We used the Fossati and Principe method to measure triglyceride, the Richmond’s method to measure total cholesterol, the Young’s method to measure HDL cholesterol, the friedewald et al method to measure LDL cholesterol, Means were compared using the student t test, prevalence was compared using the chi square test. A p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
With our sample size of 131 participants, we noticed that a majority of the population was based in the city (64.12% ). (N=68) of the 131 participants were obese and (N=97) of the total population was female. We had an overall prevalence of pre-diabetes of 32% with Quartier 4(urban area) having a higher prevalence of 19.00%, than Ndoungue. The prevalence of diabetes was 22.1% with Ndoungue(rural area) having the higher prevalence of 11.60% .We also noticed a male dominance in the prevalence of pre-diabetes in urban setting.
After detailed review of our results, we concluded that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes between urban and rural areas. And also, that there is increase in the prevalence of pre-diabetes in Nkongsamba.
We recommend that similar studies carried out in this area and other areas with a larger sample size to that can give a national reflection of pre-diabetes.


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