SCREENING PHYTOCHIMIQUE ET EVALUATION in vitro DES PROPRIETES ANTIMICROBINNES DES TIGES DE Alchornea cordifolia

Mathieu sorel NTEME EBENE (emeckny@yahoo.fr)
Pharmacie, UYI
July, 2015
 

Abstract

Worldwide, a total of 57 million deaths are registered each year from all causes of which 17 million (1/3) are due to infectious diseases. To address this problem, W.H.O recommends the search for new anti-infective molecules to deal with this situation. Currently, many medicinal properties of plants of the genus Alchornea are known. Meanwhile the species Alchornea cordifolia (EUPHORBIACEAE) is use in Traditional medicine in Cameroon. We thus undertook a study: to conduct a phytochemical screening of the species harvested in Cameroon and also to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity.__ Material and Methods: Our material consisted of whole stems of the plant and eleven microbial strains including 10 bacterial and a fungal derived from microbiology laboratory of the Clinics of Mountains University (UCM) .We performed the extraction in an aqueous-alcoholic solution ( ethanol / water 70: 30 v / v). Antimicrobial activity was performed according to the macrodillution method in liquid medium on the eleven clinical microbial and reference strains: Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia spp, Citrobacter spp and Candida albicans.__ Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites in our sample including flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, alkaloids, total phenols, cardiac glycosides. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, our study revealed that our extract has antimicrobial properties. The results of the study allowed us to obtain MIC ranging from 3.125 to 50 mg / mL on the one hand and MBC ranging from 6.25 to 200 mg / mL on the other hand. Furthermore, the bactericidal activity was shown on Escherichia coli, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Edwardsiella tarda (BMC / MIC = 2) and bacteriostatic activity on the other germs (MBC / MIC higher or equal to 4).__Conclusion: Finally, this study allowed us to conclude that Alchornea cordifolia stems harvested in Cameroon have secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity which would justify the use of this plant in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Keywords: Diseases infectious - Alchornea cordifolia - Antimicrobial Activity


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