Les Malformations Congénitales : Étude Descriptive Hospitalière à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Aissata Kaboré, Kisito Nagalo, Kady Compaoré, Aissata Bélemviré, Aimé Bama, Yé Diarra

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Les malformations congénitales contribuent pour une part importante à la morbidité et à la mortalité néonatales. Elles constituent  un problème de santé émergent de l’enfant dans les pays en développement. Cette étude avait pour but décrire les malformations observées dans un hôpital de référence au Burkina Faso. Matériels et méthodes. Etude rétrospective descriptive sur dossiers des nouveau-nés hospitalisés entre  2010  et  2013  dans l’unité de néonatologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso. Résultats. Sur les quatre années étudiées, 1455 nouveau-nés étaient hospitalisés dont 134 (9,2 %) avaient au moins une malformation. On dénombrait 214 malformations au total, soit un nombre moyen de 1,6 malformation par nouveau-né. Celui-ci était né d’une mère âgée de 26,8 ± 6,8 ans en moyenne. Il était de sexe masculin, né à 39 ± 3 semaines avec un poids moyen de naissance de 2710 ± 590 g [1250-3990 g]. Les malformations concernaient surtout l’appareil circulatoire (37,8 %), le système ostéoarticulaire et des muscles (21,0 %) et le système nerveux (11,2 %). Le taux de létalité était 13,9 %.  Conclusion. Les malformations qui sont fréquentes dans notre hôpital concernent essentiellement l'appareil circulatoire, le système ostéoarticulaire et les muscles ainsi que le système nerveux et elles sont responsables d’une forte létalité. Pour une meilleure compréhension de ces malformations, les auteurs recommandent l’examen systématique du nouveau-né à la naissance et la mise en place d’un registre des malformations.

ABSTRACT
Background. Congenital malformations contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality. They are gradually emerging as child health problem in developing countries. This study aimed at describing the malformations observed in a reference hospital in Burkina Faso. Methods. A descriptive retrospective study of records of newborns hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 for malformation was conducted in the neonatal unit of Charles de Gaulle Pediatric University Hospital of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Results. During the four years studied, 1455 newborns were hospitalized including 134 (9.2%) who had at least one defect. A total of 214 defects were numbered, giving an average of 1.6 defects/proband. The malformed newborn was born to a mother aged 26.8 ± 6.8 years, G3 ± 2 pregnancies, and who attended 3 ± 1 antenatal care on average. He was male, born at 39 ± 3 weeks, delivered vaginally with an average birth weight of 2710 ± 590 g [1250-3990 g]. The defects involved mainly the circulatory system (37.8%), the musculoskeletal and muscles system (21.0%) and the nervous system (11.2%). The eye, ear, face and neck (8.0%), digestive system (6.1%), genital organs (4.7%), cleft lip and palate (4.7%), urinary system (3.3%) and respiratory system (2.8%) were less affected. The case fatality rate was 13.9%. Conclusion. The malformations are frequent in our hospital, mainly concern the circulatory system, the musculoskeletal and muscles and the nervous systems. They are responsible for a high mortality. For a better understanding of these defects, the authors recommend the systematic examination of the newborn at birth and the establishment of a register of malformations.

Keywords


Anomalies congénitales ; Malformations ; Nouveau-né.

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References


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