Epidemiology of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans filariasis in the Akonolinga health district, Centre Region, Cameroon.
Objective: To provide complementary parasitological data on Loa loa and Mansonella perstans filariasis in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Methodology: For each enrolled, a 50 µl calibrated thick blood film was performed using capillary blood obtained between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. Giemsa stained slides where examined under optical microscope in order to identify and count L. loa and M. perstans microfilariae. Results: A total of 1511 subjects took part in the survey. The prevalence of loiasis was 23%. As regards the microfilarial load, arithmetic and Williams’ geometric means were respectively 2666.3 and 4.9 mf/ml. The intensity of infection, as well as the prevalence, were significantly higher in males than in females and were found to increase with age. The prevalence of high microfilarial loads (≥ 8000 mf/ml) was 7.9% and that of very high microfilarial loads (≥ 30 000 mf/ml) was 2.4%. The prevalence of the infestation with Mansonella perstans was 12.4 % and that of the co-infection L. loa – M. perstans was 5.1 %. Conclusion: 1) The Akonolinga health district is hyperendemic for loiasis. 2) Data collected in this area are similar to those published in most of the surveys carried out in other endemic areas. 3) M. perstans filariasis has a relatively high prevalence. These data will be helpful for the Lymphatic filariasis elimination program. The implementation of the treatment for lymphatic filariasis in this area should take into consideration these data for the prevention of severe adverse events that may occur in patients with very high L. loa microfiloarial loads after treatment with ivermectin.
Boussinesq M, Gardon J. Prevalence of Loa loa micofilaraemia throughout the area endemic for the infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1997;91:573-89.
Zoure HG, Wanji S, Noma M, Amazigo UV, Diggle PJ, Tekle AH, et al. The geographic distribution of Loa loa in Africa: results of large-scale implementation of the Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011 Jun;5(6):e1210. PubMed PMID: 21738809. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3125145.
Boussinesq M, Gardon J, Gardon-Wendel N, Kamgno J, Ngoumou P, Chippaux JP. Three probable cases of Loa loa encephalopathy following Ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998;58:461-9.
Gardon J, Gardon-Wendel N, Demanga N, Kamgno J, Chippaux JP, Boussinesq M. Serious reactions after mass treatment of onchocerciasis with Ivermectin in an area endemic for Loa loa infection. Lancet 1997;350:18-22.
Thomson MC, Obsomer V, Dunne M, Connor SJ, Molyneux DH. Satellite mapping of Loa loa prevalence in relation to Ivermectin use in west and central Africa. Lancet 2000;356:1077-8.
Boussinesq M, Gardon J, Kamgno J, Pion SD, Gardon-Wendel N, Chippaux JP. Relationships between the prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection in the central province of Cameroon. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2001;95(5):495-507.
Kamgno J, Boussinesq M. Hyperendémicité de la loase dans la plaine Tikar, région de savane arbustive du Cameroun. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2001;94(4):342-6.
Fain A, Elsen P, Wéry M, Maertens K. Les filarioses humaines au Mayumbe et dans les régions limitrophes (République du Zaïre). Evaluation de la densité microfilarienne. Ann Soc Belge Med Trop 1974;54:5-34.
Mommers EC, Dekker HS, Richard P, Garcia A, Chippaux JP. Prevalence of L. loa and M. perstans filariasis in southern Cameroon. Trop Geogr Med 1995;47(1):2-5.
Pion SD, Gardon J, Kamgno J, Gardon-Wendel N, Chippaux JP, Boussinesq M. Structure of the microfilarial reservoir of Loa loa in the human host and its implications for monitoring the programmes of community-directed treatment with Ivermectin carried out in Africa. Parasitology 2004;129:613-26.
Thomson MC, Obsomer V, Kamgno J, Gardon J, Wanji S, Takougang I, et al. Mapping the distribution of Loa loa in Cameroon in support to the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Filaria J 2004;3:7.
Takougang I, Meli J, Lamlenn S, Tatah PN, Ntep M. Loiasis: a neglected and under-estimated affliction: endemicity, morbidity and perceptions in eastern Cameroon. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2007;101:151-60.
Noireau F, Carme B, Apembet JD, Gouteux JP. Loa loa and Mansonella perstans filariasis in the Chaillu mountains, Congo: parasitological prevalence. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1989;83(4):529-34.
Pion SDS, Demanou M, Oudin B, Boussinesq M. Loiasis: the individual factors associated with the presence of microfilaraemia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2005;99(5):491-500.
Reynouard F, Barrabes A, Lacroix R, Combescot C. Etude de l'influence de 17-B-oestradiol, de la progestérone et de la testostérone sur la parasitose à Dipetalonema vitae du hamster doré femelle castré, Cricetus auratus. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 1984;59:237-44.
Garcia A, Abel L, Cot M, Ranque S, Richard P, Boussinesq M, et al. Longitudinal survey of Loa loa filariasis in southern Cameroon: long term stability and factors influencing individual microfilarial status. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995;52:370-5.
Fischer P, Kilian AH, Bamuhiiga J, Kipp W, Büttner DW. Prevalence of Mansonella perstans in western Uganda and its detection using QBC-fluorescence method. Appl Parasitol 1996;37(1):32-7.
Asio SM, Simonsen PE, Onapa AW. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Uganda: patterns of microfilaraemia and manifestations in two endemic communities. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009;103(3):266-73.
Kamgno J, Bouchité B, Baldet T, Folefack G, Godin C, Boussinesq M. Study of the distribution of human filariasis in West province of Cameroon. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1997;90:327-30.
Hopkins CA. Notes on the biology of certain Culicoïdes studied in the British Cameroons, West Africa, together with observations on their possible role as vectors of Acanthocheilonemaperstans. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1952;46:165-72.
Agbolade M, Akinboye DO. Loa loa and Mansonella perstans infections in Ibeju north, western Nigeria: a parasitological study. Jpn J Infect Dis 2001;54(3):108-10.
Kamgno J, Tsague DL, Gardon J, Boussinesq M. Données complémentaires sur l'endémie à Loa loa dans la Province du Centre Cameroun. Bull liais Doc OCEAC 2001;34(4):23-7.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.