A review of nutrition in Cameroon: Food supply, factors influencing nutritional habit and impact on micronutrient (Vitamin A, Iodine, Iron) status

Germaine N.S. Nkengfack, Judith N Torimiro, Jeanne Ngogang, Heike Englert

Abstract


Over the years, it has become evident that healthy nutritional habits have beneficial effects on health. This paper reviews available data from nutritional and epidemiological studies on natural food resources and nutritional habits in Cameroon. Of the fifteen studies available, seven reported on the natural food resources and nutritional habits in Cameroon. These studies showed that, although Cameroon is rich in natural food resources, factors like climate, household income, nutritional knowledge, urbanisation, gender and age and health have a great impact on the nutritional habits of the inhabitants. Poor nutritional habits in some parts of Cameroon has lead to high prevalence of protein-energy-malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency (vitamin A, C, E, iodine, iron, zinc etc.) especially during infections with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. However, data on micronutrient deficiency in Cameroon was very limited, except for public health relevant micronutrient (vitamin A, iron, iodine deficiency).

Keywords


Nutritional habit, micronutrient deficiency, vitamin A, iron, iodine, CameroonNutritional habit, micronutrient deficiency, vitamin A, iron, iodine, Cameroon

Full Text:

PDF

References


Achidi EA, Kuoh AJ, Minang JT, Ngum B, Achimbom BM, Motaze SC, Ahmadou MJ, Troye-BM. (2005). Malaria infection in pregnancy and its effects on haemoglobin levels in women from a malaria endemic area of Fako Division, South West Province, Cameroon. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 25(3): 235-40.

Akoto KO, Davidson HH (2008). Die Behandlung der Malaria im Kindesalter: Die Bedeutung ernährungsbezogener Interventionen. Ann Nestlé [Ger];66: 31-48.

Bascoulergue P, Leberre S.(1963). Seasonal vitamin C deficiency in the Inhabitants of Northern Cameroon. Nutr. Dieta. Eur. Rev. Nutr. Diet 59: 62-8.

Calder PC, Yagoob P (2009). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes. Biofactors. 35(3): 266-272.

Chauliac M, Bricas N, Atego E, Amoussa W, Zohoun L (1998). L’alimentation hors du domicile des écolier de cotonous (Bénin). Cahier Santé 8: 101-8.

Dapi NL, NC, Janlert U, Haglin L (2005). Adolescent food habits and nutritional status in Urban and rural areas in Cameroon. Africa. Scand. J. Nutr. 49(4): 151-158.

Dapi NL, Omoloko C, Janlert U, Dahlgren L, Håglin L (2007). “I Eat to be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.” Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon. Africa. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. 39(6): 320-326)

Delange F, Burgi H, Chen ZP, Dunn JT. (2002). World status of monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders control programs. Thyroid. 12: 915-92.

Drewnowski A, Specter SE (2004). Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79: 6-16.

Dury S, Bricas N, Tchango TJ, Temple L, Bikoï A (2002). Food quality and preference 13 (2): 81-88.

Edem DO (2002). Palm oil: Biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: A review. Plant Food for Hum. Nutr. 57: 319-341.

Edimo ME, Afane Z, Zekeng L, Kembou E, Kaptue L (1996). Tuberculosis (TB), HIV and nutrition in Yaounde - Cameroon. Int. Conf. AIDS. 11: 273.

Ejeta G, Hassen MM, Mertz ET 1987. In vitro digestibility and amino acid composition of pearl millet (pennisetum typhoides) and other cereals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84: 6016-6019

Ejoh RA, Mbiapo TF, Fokou E (1996). Nutrient Composition of leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and fruits of Solanum melongena. Plant Food and Hum. Nutr. 49: 107-112.

Theuwissen E and Mensink PR (2008). Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol. Behav. 94(2): 285-92.

Enig MG (2000). Coconut: In Support of Good Health in the 21st Century. http://www.nonipacific.com/coconut_pacific_facts/Coconut-In._

Evans P, Halliwel B (2001). Micronutrients: oxidant/antioxidant status. Br. J. Nutr. 85 (2): 6774.

FAO/WHO (1992). International Conference on Nutrition and Development: A Global Assessment, Geneva, p 3-36.

Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN in collaboration with IFPRI. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.

Fokou E, Achu MB, Tchouanguep MF (2004). Preliminary nutritional evaluation of five species of egussi seeds in Cameroon. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Develop. 4(1): 1-11.

Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, Chen Y (1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes." Nature 397, p. 436-44.

Glew RH, Glew RS, Chuang LT, Huang YS, Millson M, Constans D, Vanderjagt DJ (2006). Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 61(2): 51-6.

Gouado I, Richard AE, Kenne M, Fombotioh N, Mbiapo TF (2005). Serum concentration of Vitamin A and E and Lipid in a Rural Population of North Cameroon. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 49: 26-32.

Hemalatha S, Platel K, Srinivasan K (2006). Zinc and iron contents and their bioaccessibility in cereals and pulses consumed in India. Food Chem., 102(4): 1328-1336.

Ikhuoria EU, Maliki M (2007). Characterization of avocado pear (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis) extracts. Afr. J. Biotechn. 6 (7): 950-952.

Jaarsveld PJ, Faber M, Tanumihardjo SA, Nestel P, Lombard JC, Benade SJA (2005). B-carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potatoes improved the vitamin A of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response-test. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81: 1080-7.

Kana SMM, Amvam ZPH, Ndifor F (2004). Iron bioavailability in Cameroon weaning food and the influence on the diet composition. Afr.J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 4(1): 1-11.

Kengne AP, Amoah AG, Mbanya JC (2005). Cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa. Circulation.112: 3592–3601.

Krinsky NI (1992). Mechanism of action of biological antioxidants. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 200: 248-254.

Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA (2009). Fish consumption, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and incidence of heart failure: a population-based prospective study of middle-aged and elderly men. Eur. Heart J. 0: ehp111v1-ehp111.

Lowé JM, Nestel P, Shea OP (1993). Nutrition et santé des jeunes enfants au Cameroun. Résultat de l’enquête démographique et de santé au Cameroun (1991). Marco. Internal. Inc. p1-25.

Lucas AB, De Cock KM, Hounnou A, Peacock C, Diomande M, Honde M, Beaumel A, Kestens L, Kadio A (1994). Contribution of tuberculosis to slim disease in Africa. Br. Med. J. 308: 1531-1533.

Mbaku JM (2005). Culture and customs of Cameroon. Greenwood Pub Group Inc., ISBN-10: 0-313-33231-2 p126-131.

Mbofung CMF, Gee JM, Knight DJ. (1994). Fatty acid profile of some Cameroonian spices. J. Sci. Agric. 66: 213-216.

Mennen LI, Mbanya JC, Cade J, Balcau B, Sharma S, Chungong S, Cruickshank S (2000). The habitual diet in rural and Urban Cameroon. The Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 150-154.

Mennen LI, Jackson M, Sharma S, Mbanya JC, Cade J, Walker S, Riste L, Wilks R, Forrester T, Balkau B, Cruickshank K (2001). Habitual diet in four populations of African origin: a descriptive paper on nutrient intakes in rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica and Caribbean migrants in Britain. Public Health Nutr. 4(3):765-72.

Missang CE, † Guyot S, ‡ and Renard CMGC. (2003). Flavonols and Anthocyanins of Bush Butter, Dacryodes edulis, (G Don) HJ Lam, Fruit. Changes in Their Composition during Ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 7475-7480.

Moneam NMA (1990). Effects of pre-soaking on faba enzyme inhibitors and polyphenols after cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(7): 1479-1482.

Morriss-Kay G (1992). Retinoids in normal development and teratogenesis. Oxford: Oxford University press. p. 281-295.

Morton JF (1992). "Plant Polyphenols", Hemingway Ed RW and Laks PE. Plenum Press, New York, p.746.

Nathan DW, Peter D,† Marm KA,† and Donald SB (2005). Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, www.cdc.gov/eid 11(12).

National Institute of Statistics/United Nations Fund for Population Activities (2003). Basic Socio-Demographic Indicators in Cameroon.

Ngondi JL, Oben J, Samuel L Minka (2005). The effects of irvingnia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 4: 12

Ngondi JL, Oben J, Musoro DF, Etame HL, Mbaya D (2006). The effects of different combination therapies on oxidative stress markers in HIV infected Patients in Cameroon. AIDS Res. Ther. 3-19.

Omogbai FE (1990). Lipid composition of tropical seeds used in the Nigerian diet. J. Sc. Food Agric. 50(2): 253-255.

Osunde ZD, Musa MAL (2007). Assessment of Changes in Nutritional Values of Locally Sun-Dried Vegetables. AU. J.T. 10(4): 248-253.

Ponka R, Fokou E, Leke R, Fotso M, Souopgui J, Achu B, Mbiapo TF (2005). Methods of preparation and nutritional evaluation of dishes consumed in malaria endemic zone in Cameroon (Ngali II). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4(3): 273-278.

Sharma S, Cade J, Jackson M, Mbanya JC, Chungong S, Forrester T, Bennett F, Wilks R, Balkau B, Cruickshank JK. (1996). Development of food frequency questionnaires in three population samples of African origin from Cameroon, Jamaica and Caribbean migrants to the UK. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50(7): 479-86.

Sharma S, Mbanya JC, Cruickshank K, Cade J, Tanya AK, Cao X, Hurbos M, Wong MR (2007). Nutritional composition of commonly consumed composite dishes from the Central Province of Cameroon. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 58(6): 475-85

Scrimshaw NS (1990). Functional significance of iron deficiency: an overview. In: Enwonwu CO, ed. Functional significance of iron deficiency. Annual Nutrition Workshop Series 3: 159

Silou T, Rocquelin G, Mouaragadja I, Gallon G (2002). Chemical composition and nutritional characteristics of safou of Cameroon, the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo-Kinshasa and Gabon. La Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 79: 177-181.

Singhal N, Austin J (2002). A clinical review of micronutrients in HIV infection. J. Int. Assoc. Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill). 1(2): 63-75.

Sinha R, Kawatra A (2003). Effect of processing on phytic acid and polyphenol contents of cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp]. Plant food for human nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum). 58(3): 1-8

Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC, et al. (2002). Physical activity and it’s relationship with obesity , hypertention and diabetes in Urban and rural Cameroon. Int. J. obes; 26(7): 1009-1016.

Stolzfus RJ (2003). Iron deficiency: globale prevalence and consequences. Food Nutr. Bull. 24(4): 99-103.

Sundram K, Top AGM (1994). Vitamin E from palm oil. It’s extraction and nutritional properties. Palmas 15 (1): 77-82.

Taga I, Sameza ML, Kayo AV, Ngogang J (2004). Iodine in Food and soil in different regions in Cameroon. Santé 14(1): 11-5.

Taga I, Oumbe VAS, Johns R, Zaidi MA, Ngogang YJ, Altosaar I (2008). Youth of West-Cameroon are at high risk of developing IDD due to low dietary iodine and high dietary thiocyanate. Afr. Health Sci. 8(3): 180–185.

Tahboub YR, Galijasevic S, Diamond MP, Abu-Soud HM (2005). Thiocyanate modulates the catalytic activity of mammalian peroxidases. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 26129–26136.

Tambi NE (1999). Testing for Habit Formation in Food Commodity Consumption Patterns in Cameroon. Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing, 10(1): 15-30.

Tanya AKN, Mbofung CMF, Keshinro OO (1997). Soluble and insoluble fibre content of some Cameroonian foodstuffs. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 51: 199-2.

Theuwissen E, Mensink RP (2008). Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol. Behav. 94(2): 285-92.

Trepanier LA, Yoder AR, Bajad S, Beckwith MD, Bellehumeur JL, Graziano FM (2004). Plasma ascorbate deficiency is associated with impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole-nitroso in HIV infection. JAIDS, 36(5): 1041-1050.

Wanasundera JP, Ravindran G (1994). Nutritional assessment of yams (Dioscorea alata) tuber. Plant Food Hum. Nutr.;46 (1): 33-9.

Zambou NF, Mbiapo TF, Lando G, Tchana KA, Gouado I (1999). Effect of Onchocerca volvulus infestation on plasma vitamin A concentration in school children in a rural region of Cameroon. Sante. 9(3): 151-5.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

********************************************************************************************