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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background. Without a national renal registry in Cameroon, the burden and forms of renal disease in the North-West region of Cameroon is unknown. We aimed to describe the clinical pattern and outcome of renal and urinary tract admissions in the medical wards of the Bamenda Regional Hospital (BRH). Materials and methods. This was a retrospective analysis of records of patients hospitalized between January 1st, 2017 and December 31st, 2018, in the medical wards of the BRH. We excluded patients with incomplete files. Results. Out of the 2079 admissions, 274(13.2%) had renal and urinary tract disorders. In all, 75.5% (n= 207) were emergency admissions, 30.3% were referrals, with 92.7% (n=76) referred by general practitioners. Non-dialysed chronic kidney disease (CKD-ND) (40.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (27.4%), urinary tract infection (14.6%), dialysed chronic kidney disease (12.8%), nephrotic syndrome (2.2%) and renal colic (2.2%) were the renal syndromes seen. The need for dialysis was 57.3% in the AKI group and 67.8 % in the CKD-ND group, with less than 60% access rate. The overall mortality was 15.3% and the median length of hospital stay was 10 [IQR: 7 – 15] days. Conclusion. Renal and urinary tract diseases constitute a significant health burden in our community. The clinical pattern is dominated by CKD-ND and AKI secondary to preventable causes. Access to dialysis remains poor in those in need.


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. En l’absence d’un registre national camerounais sur les maladies rénales, le fardeau que représente les maladies de l’appareil urinaire ainsi que leurs différentes présentations sur la population du Nord-Ouest Cameroun reste inconnue. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les différents aspects cliniques ainsi que le devenir de ces maladies parmi les admissions en médecine interne à l’Hôpital Régional de Bamenda. Matériels et Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une analyse rétrospective des dossiers des patients hospitalisés entre le 1er janvier 2017 et le 31 décembre 2018, dans les services de médecine interne de l'Hôpital Régional de Bamenda. Nous avons exclu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets. Résultats. Sur les 2079 admissions durant la période d’étude, 274 (13,2 %) presentaient des maladies rénales et des voies urinaires. Au total, 75,5% (n=207) de ces admissions rénales étaient des admissions d'urgence, 30,3% étaient des références avec 92,7% (n=76) d’elles réalisées par des médecins généralistes. Les maladies rénales chroniques non dialysées (MRC-ND) (40,9 %), les lésions rénales aiguës (LRA) (27,4 %), les infections des voies urinaires (14,6 %), les maladies rénales chroniques en dialyse (12,8 %), le syndrome néphrotique (2,2 %) et la colique néphrétique (2,2 %) étaient les syndromes rénaux observés. Le besoin de dialyse était de 57,3 % dans le groupe avec LRA et de 67,8 % dans le groupe MRC-ND, avec un taux d'accès inférieur à 60 %. La mortalité globale était de 15,3 % et la durée médiane d'hospitalisation était de 10 [EIQ : 7 – 15] jours. Conclusion. Les maladies rénales et des voies urinaires sont fréquentes en hospitalisation dans notre communauté. Leur présentation clinique est dominée par les MRC-ND et les LRA dues à des causes évitables. L'accès à la dialyse reste limité chez les personnes dans le besoin.

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How to Cite
Tatang Mambap, A. ., Ngum, S. C. ., Teuwafeu, D. G. ., & Ashuntantang, G. E. . (2021). Clinical Spectrum and Outcome of Renal and Urine Tract Disease among Medical Admissions at the Bamenda Regional Hospital-Cameroon: A 2-Years Review: Renal and urine tract diseases in Bamenda. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 22(11). Retrieved from https://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/3080

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