Main Article Content

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Objective. We aimed to report our experience of conducting the first reactive OCV campaign in hard-to-reach fishermen communities on an Archipelagic Health District in Cameroon with some challenges and lessons learnt. Population and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out using results of two rounds of reactive mass vaccination campaigns against cholera. An estimated target of 9,421 people aged 1 year and above including pregnant women. The two rounds took place from February to March 2020 using an oral bivalent killed vaccine, ShancholTM. The pre-campaign phase was comprised of extensive planning on risk analysis, social mobilization, vaccine logistics, Water Hygiene and Sanitation Devices, Case Management, and Vaccination strategies. Results. Of the 9,421 people target, about 6589 people were sensitized, with 4412 from Cape Cameroon and 2177 from Toube. The first round of reactive OCV campaign achieved a coverage of 62.43% while that of the second round was 59.66%. Town crier and social mobilisers were the main sources of information. A majority of the target population was covered using the door to door strategy. All cases of vaccine refusals were managed. Conclusion. Overall OCV was highly accepted in these Island communities. Strengthening efforts on local advocacy, community mobilization, case management, implication of health area coordination teams and motivation of vaccination teams may have a better impact on controlling an outbreak.
ABSTRACT
Objectif. Nous avons voulu présenter notre expérience de la conduite de la première campagne de VCO réactive dans des communautés de pêcheurs difficiles à atteindre sur un district sanitaire archipélagique au Cameroun, avec quelques défis et leçons apprises. Population et Méthodes. Une étude transversale a été réalisée en utilisant les résultats de deux séries de campagnes de vaccination de masse réactive contre le choléra. Une cible estimée de 9 421 personnes âgées de 1 an et plus, y compris les femmes enceintes. Les deux séries ont eu lieu de février à mars 2020, avec un vaccin oral bivalent tué, ShancholTM. La phase de pré-campagne a consisté en une planification approfondie de l'analyse des risques, de la mobilisation sociale, de la logistique des vaccins, des dispositifs d'hygiène de l'eau et d'assainissement, de la gestion des cas et des stratégies de vaccination. Résultats. Sur 9 421 personnes ciblées, environ 6589 personnes ont été sensibilisées, dont 4412 au Cap Cameroun et 2177 à Toube. Le premier tour de la campagne de VCO réactive a atteint une couverture de 62,43% tandis que celle du second tour était de 59,66%. Les crieurs publics et les mobilisateurs sociaux ont été les principales sources d'information. La majorité de la population cible a été couverte par la stratégie du porte-à-porte. Tous les cas de refus de vaccins ont été pris en charge. Conclusion. Dans l'ensemble, le VCO a été très bien accepté dans ces communautés insulaires. Le renforcement des efforts sur le plaidoyer local, la mobilisation communautaire, la gestion des cas, l'implication des équipes de coordination des zones de santé et la motivation des équipes de vaccination peuvent avoir un meilleur impact sur le contrôle d'une épidémie.

Keywords

Challenges Lessons Learnt Mass Campaigns Cholera Vaccine Hard-to-reach community Cameroon Défis Leçons apprises Campagnes de masse Vaccin contre le choléra Communauté à accès difficile Cameroun

Article Details

Author Biography

Amani A, Director, Sub directorate of Vaccination, Directorate of Family Health, Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Sub directorate of Vaccination, Directorate of Family Health, Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon

How to Cite
Amani A, Cheuyem Lekeumo FZ, Asaah Tatang C, Mbang MA, Epee Douba EC, & Bouhenia M. (2022). Challenges and Lessons Learnt after Two Mass Campaigns of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Hard-to-Reach Fishermen Communities . HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 23(5). Retrieved from https://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/3635

References

  1. Cholera, 2020 World Health Organization [Internet]. [cited 2021 Nov 7]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/345271/WER9637-445-454-eng-fre.pdf?sequence=1
  2. Assessing the outbreak response and improving preparedness [Internet]. [cited 2021 Nov 6]. Available from: https://www.who.int/cholera/publications/final%20outbreak%20booklet%20260105-OMS.pdf
  3. Amani A, Fouda AAB, Nangmo AJ, Bama SN, Tatang CA, Mbang MA, et al. Reactive mass vaccination campaign against cholera in the COVID-19 context in Cameroon: challenges, best practices and lessons learned. Pan Afr Med J. 2021 Apr 22;38:392.
  4. Manoka – Atlas SCH-STH [Internet]. [cited 2021 Nov 5]. Available from: https://ntdmaps.org/littoral/manoka/
  5. Baik YO, Choi SK, Olveda RM, Espos RA, Ligsay AD, Montellano MB, et al. A randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing two bivalent killed, whole cell, oral cholera vaccines (Euvichol vs Shanchol) in the Philippines. Vaccine. 2015 Nov 17;33(46):6360–5.
  6. Lubogo M, Mohamed AM, Ali AH, Ali AH, Popal GR, Kiongo D, et al. Oral cholera vaccination coverage in an acute emergency setting in Somalia, 2017. Vaccine. 2020 Feb 29;38 Suppl 1:A141–7.
  7. Azman AS, Parker LA, Rumunu J, Tadesse F, Grandesso F, Deng LL, et al. Effectiveness of one dose of oral cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak: a case-cohort study. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Nov;4(11):e856–63.
  8. Ivers LC, Hilaire IJ, Teng JE, Almazor CP, Jerome JG, Ternier R, et al. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study and bias-indicator analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Mar;3(3):e162-168.
  9. Parker LA, Rumunu J, Jamet C, Kenyi Y, Lino RL, Wamala JF, et al. Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Apr;17(4):e123–7.
  10. Abubakar A, Azman AS, Rumunu J, Ciglenecki I, Helderman T, West H, et al. The First Use of the Global Oral Cholera Vaccine Emergency Stockpile: Lessons from South Sudan. PLoS Med. 2015 Nov;12(11):e1001901.
  11. Luquero FJ, Grout L, Ciglenecki I, Sakoba K, Traore B, Heile M, et al. First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(10):e2465.
  12. Luquero FJ, Grout L, Ciglenecki I, Sakoba K, Traore B, Heile M, et al. Use of Vibrio cholerae vaccine in an outbreak in Guinea. N Engl J Med. 2014 May 29;370(22):2111–20.
  13. Grandesso F, Rafael F, Chipeta S, Alley I, Saussier C, Nogareda F, et al. Oral cholera vaccination in hard-to-reach communities, Lake Chilwa, Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 2018 Dec 1;96(12):817–25.
  14. Ngwa MC, Alemu W, Okudo I, Owili C, Ugochukwu U, Clement P, et al. The reactive vaccination campaign against cholera emergency in camps for internally displaced persons, Borno, Nigeria, 2017: a two-stage cluster survey. BMJ Glob Health. 2020 Jun 29;5(6):e002431.
  15. Poncin M, Zulu G, Voute C, Ferreras E, Muleya CM, Malama K, et al. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia. Bull World Health Organ. 2018 Feb 1;96(2):86–93.
  16. Kar SK, Sah B, Patnaik B, Kim YH, Kerketta AS, Shin S, et al. Mass vaccination with a new, less expensive oral cholera vaccine using public health infrastructure in India: the Odisha model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Feb;8(2):e2629.
  17. Sharp A, Blake A, Backx J, Panunzi I, Barrais R, Nackers F, et al. High cholera vaccination coverage following emergency campaign in Haiti: Results from a cluster survey in three rural Communes in the South Department, 2017. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jan;14(1):e0007967.
  18. Semá Baltazar C, Rafael F, Langa JPM, Chicumbe S, Cavailler P, Gessner BD, et al. Oral cholera vaccine coverage during a preventive door-to-door mass vaccination campaign in Nampula, Mozambique. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0198592.
  19. Legros D, Paquet C, Perea W, Marty I, Mugisha NK, Royer H, et al. Mass vaccination with a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):837–42.