BACTERIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME PATHOGNS OF THE UROGENITAL TRACT IN BUEA SUBDIVISION (SOUTH WEST REGION CAMEROON).
Introduction/ Urogenital tract infections have a considerable socio-economic impact in Cameroon inparticular and in developing countries in general, as they represent a major cause of morbidity, infertility and increase susceptibility to cancers and HIV/AIDS infections. Yet
epidemiological data which are essential in designing a proper strategy to fight against
these ailments are rare in Cameroon.
Objective: The main objective of this study is to establish a profile of infectious pathogens associatedwith the urogenital tract from symptomatic cases and to determine the antibiotic
susceptibility pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents.
Method:The isolation of infectious agents of bacterial and fungal origin from urogenital specimens in Buea was evaluated alongside their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antibiotics by the Kirby Bauer method. During a 3-month period, April – June 2007,
a total of 220 samples from the urogenital specimens (vaginal, urethral and urine) was collected and analyzed from symptomatic male and female cases attending some health centers in the Buea Health District. All specimens were subjected to biochemical tests for identification and differentiation of individual isolates.
Results: In all, 145 pathogens were isolated; 101 were of bacterial origin while 44 were
of fungal (yeast) origin. The prevalence of infectious agents in males [21.3% (17/80)] was different from females [74.30% (104/140)]. Infections were prevalent in individuals within the age group of 20-29, for both sexes, strongly followed by those within the range of 30-39. Ranking the infectivity of the clinical specimens, it was observed that vaginal specimens (70.25%) were the most infected followed by urine (21.49%) and urethral specimens (8.26%) being the least. Bacterial strains were found to be mostly sensitive tociprofloxacin and frequently resistant to ampicillin and augmentin. On the other hand, yeast strains were mostly sensitive to ketoconazole while flucytosin and amphotericin B were of least sensitivity.
Conclusion: Females were more infected than males and not all the isolates were present in both sexes. The vagina specimens had the highest pathogenic load. E. coli was the most predominant
isolate from the urinary tract. There was a high prevalence of vaginitis (Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis infections) within the area of study compared to any other infectious agent. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the best drug for treatment of bacterial infections of the urogenital tract was ciprofloxacin, followed by ceftriaxone and amikacin; against ampicillin and augmentin which showed a high degree of resistance to the infectious isolates. On the other hand, the most effective antifungal was ketoconazole, followed by nystatin. The most exhibited multidrug resistant pattern was augmentine-ampicillin-cotrimoxazole. This study revealed that both males and females should be examined from time to time for infection so as to avoid progression to severe states with serious complications.
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