DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF BIOTYPES AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PHENOTYPES OF ENTEROBACTER SSP. ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS IN YAOUNDE, CAMEROON
Since the prevalence of Enterobacter spp. as a nosocomial pathogen is on the increase and the prevalence of β-lactams resistant strains is on the rise, a study was designed to analyze the diversity and distribution of Enterobacter spp. at the Yaounde General Hospital with regard to biochemical and antibiotic resistance profiles. From December 2006 to August 2007, a prospective study on Enterobacter strains isolated from clinical samples was conducted in the bacteriology laboratory of the Yaounde General Hospital. In addition to phenotypes derived from the commercial biochemical kit API 20E (BioMèrieux), 3 biochemical tests were performed. Antibiotics resistances were determined on Mueller Hinton agar by standard disks diffusion procedures to 12 antibiotics. There was a great variability in biotypes within the species cloacae with 9 distinct biotypes identified. Phenotypes characterized by a high level of resistance (more than 6 antibiotics tested) were present both in community and hospitalized patients. 7 strains of Enterobacter were identified as strains producing extended spectrum betalactamases. For all cephalosporins, the percentages of resistance were greater among hospitalized patients, children and new-borns being the most affected. The resistance were higher in blood cultures than in other samples. The distribution of resistance within the Enterobacter genera was different depending on whether the patient was hospitalized or not, the category of age to which he belongs and the specimen from which the strains were isolated. There was no association between biotypes isolated and the origin or the type of the specimen and the patient’s age.
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