Syndrome d’Apnées Hypopnées Obstructives du Sommeil chez les Enfants: Prévalence et Facteurs Associés

Ulrich Vodouhè, AP Wachinou, G Djogbenou Tito, A Njifou Njimah, E Salanon, U Akpaki, F Avakoudjo, G Sagbo

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Le Syndrome d’Apnées Hypopnées Obstructives du Sommeil (SAHOS) est le trouble respiratoire le plus fréquent lié au sommeil chez l’enfant. L’objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence et les facteurs associés au SAHOS chez les enfants et adolescents vus en consultation d’oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) à Cotonou. Méthodes. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s’est déroulée du 06 août au 30 novembre 2018 dans les services d’ORL du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Zone de Suru-Léré et du centre médical Avicennes de Cotonou. Le recrutement a été non probabiliste de commodité chez les enfants de 3 à 18 ans admis en consultation et remplissant les critères d’inclusion. Résultats. Sur les 74 enfants inclus, 37 sur 51 ayant une polygraphie valide ont présenté un SAHOS, soit une fréquence hospitalière en service d’ORL de 72,5 %. Les enfants d’âge préscolaire (40,5%) et scolaire (43,2%) étaient les plus touchés avec une prédominance masculine de 54,05%. Le ronflement était le seul symptôme significativement associé au SAHOS (p=0,045). Les principales causes de SAHOS recensées étaient les hypertrophies amygdaliennes associées aux végétations adénoïdes (46%), les végétations adénoïdes simples (24,3%) et les rhinosinusites (16,2%). Conclusion. Le SAHOS est une réalité chez l’enfant au Bénin. Il doit être systématiquement recherché devant un trouble respiratoire lié au sommeil afin d’éviter à la longue des conséquences lourdes sur la croissance et le développement cognitif de l’enfant.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is the most common respiratory disorder in children. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with OSA in children and adolescents seen during oto-rhino-laryngology (ORL) consultations at Cotonou. Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that took place from 6 August to 30 November 2018 in the ORL departments of the teaching hospital of Suru Léré and the Avicennes medical centre in Cotonou. Recruitment was non-probabilist and involved children aged 3 to 18 years admitted to consultation and who meet the inclusion criteria. Results. Of the 74 children included, 37 of 51 with valid polygraphs had OSA, representing a 72.5% hospital frequency in ORL departement. Preschool (40.5%) and school (43.2%) children were the most affected with a male prevalence of 54.05%. Snoring was the only symptom significantly associated with OSA (p=0.045). The main causes of SAHOS identified were tonsillar hypertrophies associated with adenoids (46%), single adenoids (24.3%) and rhinosinusitis (16.2%). Conclusion. OSA is a reality in children in Benin. It should be systematically sought in children with sleep-related respiratory disorders in order to avoid serious long-term consequences on the child's growth and cognitive development.

Keywords


SAHOS, trouble respiratoire du sommeil, ronflement, enfant, Bénin

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