Aspects Immunohistochimiques des Cancers du Sein à Douala et à Yaounde

Paul Jean Atangana, C Tchenté Nguefack, C Totoum Fotsing, E Dina Bell, Rachel Tayou, C Ngasoua Tomfeu, Ambroise Seme Engoumou, A Njifou Njimah, Z Sando, Amadou Fewou

Abstract


 


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Le cancer du sein est le cancer féminin le plus fréquent au monde. Il représente 23% de tous les cancers de la femme. Au Cameroun, il est le premier cancer et représente 18,5% de l’ensemble des cancers. Il peut être classé selon l’expression des marqueurs tumoraux en cinq sous-types moléculaires aux pronostics différents. L’objectif de ce travail était de décrire les aspects immunohistochimiques des cancers du sein. Méthodologie. Cette étude rétrospective, descriptive et analytique a concerné tous les cas de carcinomes mammaires invasifs ayant bénéficié d’un examen immunohistochimique dans des centres de prise en charge de Douala et Yaoundé. Les associations entre les sous-types moléculaires et les caractéristiques cliniques et histologiques ont été mesurées par un modèle de régression logistique et exprimées grâce à l’Odd ratio avec intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats. Nous avons colligé 208 cas. L’âge moyen était de 47,83 ± 13,57 ans. La tranche d’âge la plus atteinte était celle de 30-39 ans. Le type histologique le plus représenté était le carcinome canalaire infiltrant NOS. Le triple négatif était le sous-type le plus représenté (37,98%), suivi des tumeurs luminales A (36,06%), HER2 (12,98%), luminal B (7.21%). L’index de prolifération Ki67 était non significatif. Les tumeurs HER2 avaient les plus forts taux d’emboles vasculaires et de métastases ganglionnaires. Conclusion. Le cancer du sein survient dans notre milieu à un âge relativement jeune. Le phénotype triple négatif est dominant. Le groupe luminal A présente un profil moins agressif que les autres groupes. Nous recommandons la recherche systématique des récepteurs hormonaux et de l’oncoprotéine HER2.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer in the world. It represents 23% of all female cancers. It is the first cancer in Cameroon, with 18.5%. Breast cancer can be classified according to the expression of tumor markers in 5 molecular subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2, triple negative and non-classified. The objective of this work was to determine immunohistochemical aspects of breast cancer in Douala and Yaounde. Materials and Methods. We carried out a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study which concerned all cases of invasive breast carcinomas which underwent an immunohistochemical examination. We analyzed histopathological and immunohistochemistry reports from some breast cancer centres of Douala and Yaounde. The associations between molecular subtypes, clinical and histological characteristics were measured by a logistic regression model and expressed thanks to the Odd ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results. We collected 208 cases; the mean age was 47.83 years ± 13.57 years. The most affected age group was 30-39 years. The most represented histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma. Triple negative was the most represented subtype (37.98%), followed by luminal tumors A (36.06%), HER2 (12.98%), luminal B (7.21%). The proliferation index Ki67 was low. HER2 tumors were had the highest vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion. The breast cancer occurres at a relatively young age in our milieu. The triple-negative phenotype is dominant. The luminal A group has a less aggressive profile. Thus, we recommend the systematic search of hormone receptors and HER2 protein in breast cancers.


Keywords


Cancer du sein, groupes moléculaires, biomarqueurs

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