Epidemiology and pattern of road traffic injuries in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon: a retrospective hospital based study prior to the implementation of a formal trauma registry

D Ngaroua, NM Neossi, Jérémie Mbo Amvene, A Chichom Mefire, NJ Eloundou

Abstract


Low income countries are disproportionately affected by injuries. Most injury related death and disabilities occur as the result of road traffic accidents. This study aims at analysing the epidemiology and pattern of road traffic related injuries in a semi-urban area in the northern part of Cameroon where no such data existed before.

This hospital based retrospective analysis was conducted over a period of five years in a level III institution in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The records of all patients received in the emergency department of Ngaoundéré hospital after a road traffic related injury were reviewed for epidemiological variables, type of vehicle involved, nature and severity of injuries, modalities of management and outcome. A total of 1257 victims of road traffic injuries could be analyzed. Their ages ranged from 2 to 84 years and males were more affected than females. Almost 60% of victims were motorcycle users. Each patient sustained a mean of 1.3 lesions. The head and lower limbs were the most affected body parts. The most frequent lesions were soft tissue injuries and bone fractures, involving mostly the lower limb. Most injuries were of minor or moderate severity and the admission rate was 28%. A total of 79 patients (6.3%) were reported dead. Most of them sustained a head injury. The massive presence of motorcycles in the Adamaoua region seems to influence the pattern of road traffic injuries. A more comprehensive system of capturing injury cases needs to be developed in Ngaoundéré.

Résumé

Le nombre  croissant des victimes et la gravité des lésions par accident sur la voie publique (AVP) reçus aux urgences de l’Hôpital Régional de Ngaoundéré sont préoccupants.

Ce travail a pour objectif d’identifier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques des accidentés, les types d’engins, les facteurs favorisants, les différentes lésions et les modalités de leur prise en charge.

L’étude rétrospective couvre la période 2005-2010, soit au total 1496 traumatisés, dont 1257 cas d’AVP. La sex-ratio Homme/Femme est de 2.36 et l’âge moyen des victimes est de 43,5± 5 ans.

Les engins mis en cause ont été recensés : les motos (67.77%), les véhicules à 4roues et plus (30.15%), train (1.36%) et bicyclette (0.72%).  Les facteurs principaux favorisants sont : la méconnaissance du code de la route, l’excès de vitesse, l’état de dégradation des routes, l’état défectueux des moyens de déplacement, l’alcoolisme et la drogue.

Les lésions les plus fréquentes sont : les fractures (38.05%), les traumatismes crâniens et crânio-faciaux (13.28%), les contusions (12.10%) et les plaies des parties molles (11.38%).

La conduite thérapeutique  est fonction de la nature de la lésion. Nous avons enregistré 79 décès soit 6.28%.

Les AVP  sont en augmentation constantes du fait de l’adoption de la moto comme moyen principal de transport urbain.

 


Keywords


Road traffic injuries, trauma, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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