Fever of Unknown Origin in Africa: The Causes Are Often Determined!

Souleymane Brah, M Daou, L Salissou, SA Mahaman, D Alhousseini, Amélie Iroungou B, S Moussa, B Malam-Abdou, H Adamou, E Adehossi

Abstract


Abstract

Introduction: In Africa, the presumptive diagnosis of malaria leads to the misdiagnosis and under diagnosis of many other infectious diseases. Certain etiologies of fever of unknown origin (FUO) have a significant prevalence in this continent but are seldom the focus of practitioners or are impossible to diagnose because of a lack of resources.

Method: In this literature review, we focus on the causes of FUO that are not usually examined by practitioners in Africa, outside of Maghreb. Data were obtained from publications identified by PubMed searches.

Results: Among the FUO etiologies reported in the literature, we were interested by rickettsiosis, borreliosis, Q fever, leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, and the Zika virus.

Conclusion: These listed diseases should be part of etiologies that are systematically searched for in the African continent.

Key words: Fever of unknown origin, rickettsiosis, borreliosis, Q fever, leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Africa

 

Résumé

Introduction: En Afrique, le diagnostic présomptif du paludisme conduit à des erreurs diagnostiques. Certaines étiologies de fièvre d’origine indéterminée (FOI) ont une prévalence significative dans ce continent, mais ne sont pas été évoqués par les praticiens ou impossibles à diagnostiquer en raison du manque de ressources.

Méthode: Dans cette revue de la littérature, nous serons limités aux causes de FOI généralement non mentionnées par les praticiens en Afrique en dehors du Maghreb. Les données ont été obtenues à partir de publications identifiées dans la base de données PubMed. Nous ne parlerons pas de la fièvre Ebola qui est actuellement l’actualité médicale africaine et mondiale avec plusieurs publications.

Résultats : Parmi ces étiologies de FOI rapportées dans la littérature, nous avons retrouvé plusieurs maladies infectieuses peu diagnostiquées habituellement et nous nous sommes intéressés aux rickettsioses, borrélioses, fièvre Q,  leptospirose, dengue, chikungunya et au virus Zika.

Conclusion: Les Rickettsioses, les borrelioses, la fièvre Q, la leptospirose, la dengue, le chikungunya et le virus zika doivent être pris en compte systématiquement parmi les causes de FOI en Afrique.

Mots clés: Fièvre d’origine indéterminée,, rickettsiose, borreliose, fever Q, leptospirose, dengue, chikungunya, zika virus, afrique.


Keywords


Fever of unknown origin, rickettsiosis, borreliosis, Q fever, leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Africa

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