Prévalence et facteurs associés au tabagisme à Yaoundé, Cameroun

Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Boris Judicaël Theubo-Kamgang, Emmanuel Afane-Ze, Christopher Kuaban

Abstract


RESUME

Objectif : L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence et rechercher les facteurs associés au tabagisme chez l’adulte à Yaoundé.

Matériels et Méthode : Cette étude transversale s’est déroulée sur une période de 5 mois (Décembre 2013 à Avril 2014) chez les adultes âgés d’au moins 19 ans et sélectionnés à l’aide d’un échantillonnage aléatoire stratifié. Un fumeur ou fumeur actif était un sujet qui avait déclaré avoir fumé  au moins une cigarette par jour pendant au moins un an ou qui avait fumé au moins 20 paquets de cigarettes dans sa vie et qui continue de fumer. Un ex-fumeur était toute personne  qui avait déclaré  avoir  arrêté  de fumer depuis au moins 6 mois. Les facteurs indépendants associés au tabagisme actif ont été recherchés par la  régression logistique multinomiale.

Résultats : Des 2297 sujets inclus, 57,4% sujets étaient de sexe féminin et  la médiane d’âge (intervalle interquartile) était de 30ans (24-42ans). La prévalence du tabagisme actif était de 8,4% (IC à 95% : 7,3-9,5%) et la proportion des ex-fumeurs était de 5,6%. Les  facteurs indépendants associés au tabagisme actif  étaient : l’âge ≥ 30 ans [odds ratio ajusté (IC à 95%): 2,38(1,60-3,53)], le sexe masculin [10,44(6,75-16,14)], les personnes vivant avec un fumeur [12,76(8,62-18,87)] et les travailleurs du secteur informel [2,31(1,27-4,21)].

Conclusion : La prévalence du tabagisme actif est relativement peu élevée chez les adultes à Yaoundé. Malgré cette prévalence peu élevée, il important d’éduquer la population pour réduire cette prévalence afin d’éviter les maladies liées au tabagisme.  

Mots-clés : Tabagisme, prévalence, Yaoundé, Cameroun

 

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking in adults in Yaounde.

Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was undertaken from December 2013 to April 2014 (5 months) using stratified random sampling method to include adults aged 19 years and above. A current or active smoker was a subject that had reported smoking at least one cigarette per day for at least one year or who had smoked at least 20 packs of cigarettes in his life and continues to smoke. An ex-smoker was a person who had reported having stopped smoking for at least six months. Logistic regression methods were used to investigate independent associated factors of smoking.

Results: Of the 2297 subjects included, 57.4% were women and their median age (interquartile range) was 30 (24-42) years. The prevalence of current smoking was 8.4% (95% CI: 7.3-9.5%) and the proportion of former smokers was 5.6%. Independent factors associated with smoking were age ≥ 30 years [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 2.38 (1.60 to 3.53)], male sex [10.44 (6.75 -16.14)], people living with a smoker [12.76 (8.62 to 18.87)] and informal sector workers [2.31 (1.27 to 4.21)].

Conclusion: The prevalence of active smoking among adults in Yaoundé is relatively low.  Despite the low prevalence of smoking in this setting, it is important to educate the population to reduce the burden of tobacco smoking.

Key-words: Tobacco smoking, prevalence, Yaounde, Cameroon

Keywords


Tobacco smoking; prevalence; Yaounde; Cameroon

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