Influence du Niveau Socio-Économique sur la Prévalence de l’Asthme à Yaoundé

Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Chrystelle Djuikam-Kamga, Raïcha Julie Boulleys-Nana, Patricia Ingrid Ndjetcheu-Moualeu, E L Petchou-Talla, E C Kenmegne-Noumsi, Nelly R Efe de Melingui, Emmanuel Afane Ze

Abstract



RÉSUMÉ
Introduction.  L’asthme est la maladie respiratoire chronique non transmissible la plus fréquente. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de comparer la prévalence de l’asthme entre les niveaux socio-économique (NSE) et rechercher une association indépendante entre l’asthme et le NSE. Méthodes. Une étude transversale à Yaoundé, incluant les adultes d’au moins 19 ans par échantillonnage stratifié à 3 niveaux a été réalisée. Etaient définis comme « asthme vie » les sujets se déclarant asthmatiques et « asthme actuel » ceux ayant eu des sifflements dans la poitrine au cours des 12 derniers mois. Les différents degrés du NSE ont été évalués par l’indice de richesse proposé par la banque mondiale pour le Cameroun: les pauvres appartenant au 1er et 2e quintile, les sujets de revenus intermédiaires au 3e et 4e quintile et les riches les sujets appartenant au 5e quintile. Résultats.  Parmi 2198 sujets avec un âge médian de 30 ans (24-42 ans), 880 (40,0%) sujets ont été classés dans le groupe des pauvres, 894(40,7%) sujets dans le groupe à revenus intermédiaires et 424(19,3%) sujets dans le groupe des riches. La prévalence de l’asthme actuel était de 3,1%, 3,0% et 2,6% (p=0,880) et celle de l’asthme vie était de 7,1% ; 7,3% ; 5,7% (p=0,533) respectivement chez les pauvres, les sujets à revenus intermédiaires et les riches. La restriction de l’analyse aux hommes et aux femmes ne modifiait pas l’association. Conclusion. Le NSE n’influence pas la prévalence de l’asthme en milieu urbain camerounais.
ABSTRACT
Background. Asthma is the most frequent non communicable respiratory disease. The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of asthma between different socioeconomic status (SES) and look for independent association between asthma and SES. Methods. Data from a cross-sectional community based study were analyzed. Participants aged 19 years and above were selected through multilevel stratified random sampling methods across Yaounde. Subjects with current symptoms of asthma (current-asthma) were those experienced wheezing in the last 12 months and lifetime-asthma were those who declared as asthmatics patients. The different degree of SES was evaluated through the richness index proposed for Cameroon by the World Bank. Subjects divided in 1st and 2nd quintile were included in the poor SES group, those for 3rd and 4th quintile in the intermediate SES group and those for  5th quintile in the rich SES group. Results. Among the 2198 subjects included with a median (interquartile range) age of 30 (24-42) years, 880 (40.0%) subjects were classified in the poor SES group, 894 (40.7%) subjects in the intermediate SES group and 424 (19.3%) subjects in the rich SES group. Prevalence of current-asthma was 3.1%, 3.0% and 2.6% (p=0.880) and prevalence of lifetime-asthma was 7.1% ; 7.3% ; 5.7% (p=0.533) respectively in poor SES group, intermediate SES group and rich SES group. Restriction of this analysis to men and women did not change the association. Conclusion. SES does not influence the prevalence of asthma in an urban camerounian milieu.

Keywords


Asthme, niveau socio-économique, Afrique sub-saharienne, prévalence.

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