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Abstract

RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Peu de travaux existent en Afrique subsaharienne sur la prévalence de l’artériopathie oblitérante des membres inférieurs (AOMI) chez le sujet hypertendu n’ayant pas eu d’événement cardiovasculaire. Ces données étant utiles afin de planifier les actions préventives dans cette population. Matériels et Méthodes. Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale analytique en procédant au dépistage de l’AOMI utilisant la mesure de l’index de pression systolique (IPS) chez un groupe de patients hypertendu sans aucun antécédent d’évènement cardiovasculaire. Les données cliniques et la mesure de l’IPS ont été enregistrées. Les facteurs associés à l’AOMI ont été recherchés par analyse bivariée (test de Pearson) puis multivariée utilisant un modèle de régression logistique ajusté selon l’âge et le sexe. Résultats. Un total de 312 patients hypertendus suivis à en cardiologie à Yaoundé (Cameroun) ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les participants avaient une moyenne d’âge de 61,1 ans, 69,9% étaient des femmes, et leur risque cardiovasculaire (RCV) global était faible. La prévalence de l’AOMI était de 31,4%, et 89,9% étaient asymptomatiques. Les grades 2 et 3 d’hypertension artérielle selon l’OMS, une pression pulsée >65mmHg, un RCV élevé ou très élevé, et la présence d’un syndrome métabolique étaient les facteurs significativement associés à l’AOMI. Un Camerounais sur trois souffrant d’hypertension artérielle et n’ayant pas eu d’évènement vasculaire, présente une AOMI le plus souvent asymptomatique. Conclusion. Ces données doivent alerter les praticiens prenant en charge les patients hypertendus afin de dépister l’AOMI au moyen d’outils simple, et peu couteux tels que la mesure de l’IPS.
ABSTRACT
Introduction. There are few studies in sub-Saharan Africa on the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs in hypertensive subjects who have not had a cardiovascular event. These data are necessary for planning preventive actions in this population. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study screening for PAD of the lower limbs using systolic pressure index (SPI) measurement in a group of hypertensive patients with no history of cardiovascular events. Clinical data and SPI measurement were recorded. Factors associated with were investigated by bivariate (Pearson test) and multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. Results. A total of 312 hypertensive patients followed in cardiology in Yaoundé (Cameroon) were included. The participants had a mean age of 61.1 years, 69.9% were women, and their overall cardiovascular risk (CVR) was low. The prevalence of PAD of the lower limbs was 31.4%, and 89.9% were asymptomatic. WHO hypertension grades 2 and 3, pulse pressure above 65mmHg, high or very high CVR, and the presence of metabolic syndrome were the significantly associated factors. One out of three patients with hypertension without any prior vascular event, has a mostly asymptomatic PAD affecting the lower limbs. Conclusion. These data should alert practitioners managing hypertensive patients to screen for PAD using simple, inexpensive tools such as the measurement of SPI.

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Mfeukeu Kuate, L., Elomo Andela Nkamba, R. ., Jingi, A. M., Boombhi, J., Nkeck, J. R., Nsangou Mounpou, B. ., Ndobo, V. J., Owona Nsiagam, A., & Menanga, A. P. (2021). Épidémiologie de l’Artériopathie Oblitérante des Membres Inférieurs chez le Patient Hypertendu Camerounais sans Antécédent d’Évènement Vasculaire: Epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease of lower limb in Cameroonian hypertensive patients with no previous vascular event. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 22(11). Retrieved from https://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/3069

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