Prévalence des Gènes de Virulence d’Escherichia Coli au Cours des Gastroentérites Aigues chez les Enfants à Niamey

O Abdoulaye, I Abdoulaye, D A Maiga, M Kourna, M L Amadou Harouna, M Doutchi, K D Bahari, A Biraima, O Amadou, M Illa, S Ousmane, S Amadou, I I Arzika, M Issa, A S Ouédraogo

Abstract



RÉSUMÉ
Objectif. La présente étude avait pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence des gènes de virulence d’Escherichia coli au cours des gastro-entérites aiguës chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Matériels et Méthodes. Nous avons mené une étude transversale prospective descriptive, de Novembre 2018 à Févier 2019 au laboratoire de biologie de l’Hôpital National de Niamey. Ont été inclus tous les enfants de moins de 5 ans chez qui une coproculture a été réalisée. Les selles ont été ensemencées sur la gélose EMB et l’identification d’E. coli a été réalisée avec les galeries API 10 S de Biomerieux®. Une PCR en uniplexe avec les différentes amorces ciblant les gènes de virulence nous a permis de caractériser les différents pathotypes. Résultats. Au total, 279 patients ont été inclus. L’âge moyen des sujets était de 18,36±12,4 mois. Nous avions observé une distribution E. coli plus ou moins constante en fonction de l’âge. Nous avons détecté quatre gènes de virulence d’E. coli dans 55 échantillons des 279 patients inclus (19,7%). Les prévalences d'EPEC, d'EHEC, d'EAEC, d'EIEC étaient respectivement de 0,7%, 1,1%, 2,9% et 6,1%, tandis que celles des infections mixtes étaient de 6,8% pour EIEC+EAEC, 0,7% pour EIEC+EHEC, 0,4% pour EPEC+EIEC et 1,1% pour EPEC+EIEC+EAE. Aucune souche disposant d’ETEC et de DAEC n'a été isolée. Conclusion. Cette étude nous a permis d’établir la distribution des gènes de virulence d’E. coli isolés chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans au cours des gastro-entérites à l’HNN. Au regard du taux de mortalité élevé lié aux diarrhées, il est nécessaire de rendre systématique la recherche d’E coli devant toute gastro-entérite d’origine infectieuse.
ABSTRACT
Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli virulence genes during acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age. Methodology. We conducted a cross sectional descriptive prospective study from November 2018 to February 2019 in the biology laboratory of the Niamey National Hospital. All children aged 5 years or less  who had a coproculture were included. The stool was streaked on the EMB agar and identification of E. coli was produced with API 10 S galleries in Biomerieux®. A uniplex PCR with the different primers targeting the virulence genes allowed us to characterize the different pathotypes. Results. A total of 279 patients were included in our study. The mean age of the cohort was 18.36 ± 12.4 months. We had observed a more or less constant distribution of E. coli according to age. We had detected four virulence genes from E. coli in 55 samples of the 279 patients included (19.7%). Prevalence of EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC were 0.7%, 1.1%, 2.9% and 6.1%, respectively, while those of mixed infections were 6, 8% for EIEC + EAEC, 0.7% for EIEC + EHEC, 0.4% for EPEC + EIEC and 1.1% for EPEC + EIEC + EAE. No strain with ETEC and DAEC had been isolated. Conclusion. This study allowed us to establish the distribution of E. virulence genes. E coli isolated from children less than 5 years of age during NHN gastroenteritis. In view of the high mortality rate linked to diarrhea, it is more than necessary to make the search for E coli systematic in the face of any gastroenteritis of infectious origin.


Keywords


Gastro-entérites - E. coli - PCR uniplexe - Niger.

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