Enteric prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus in under five children predisposed to acute diarrhea in yaounde-cameroon.
Introduction: Acute diarrhea in tropical countries can be caused by a broad spectrum of viral, parasitic, and bacterial enteropathogens.
The characteristics of the epidemiology of rotavirus and adenovirus worldwide needs to be considered in the process of vaccine development. Acute diarrhea in tropical countries can be caused by a broad spectrum of viral, parasitic and bacterial enteropathogens.
Objectives:The main objective of this study was to identify Rotavirus and Adenovirus in under five children predisposed with acute diarrhea in Yaoundé-Cameroon using VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test kit (BioMérieux, France).
Methodology:A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in under five children presenting with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in the Yaoundé municipality namely; Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH), Chantal Biya Foundation (CIRCB), Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatrics Hospital (GOPHY), and the District Hospital Biyem-assi, from April 2008 to September 2008.
Stool samples were collected in sterile stool containers following microbiologically approved methods. Wet preparations of the different samples were examine for the presence of parasites, red cells, white cells, and yeast cells. The samples were analyzed for rotavirus and adenovirus by immunochromatographic method using the VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test kit.
Result: A total of 61 children presenting with acute diarrhoea were recruited into the study during the study period. The mean (+ SD) age of the study participants was 15.02 + 13.7months (range 2 – 59 months). There were 30 (49.2%) males and 31 (50.8%) females. The mean (+ SD) ages of the male and female recruits were 16.60+ 15.07 and 13.48 + 12.29 months respectively.
An enteric pathogen incidence of 85.3% was detected in the children. This study showed a rotavirus prevalence of 32.8% in children with acute diarrhea. A significant difference was observed when the prevalence of rotavirus in males (46.7%) was compared to that of females (19.4%), (P=0.04). It was also observed that 41.0% of children 0-12months were most affected with rotavirus infection, while the age group 13-24 months had a prevalence of 30.7%. Three children (4.9%) were positive for both rotavirus and adenovirus. Adenovirus was detected in 6.6% of the children. The age distribution of adenovirus infection showed 7.7% prevalence in the age group 0-12 months and one case of adenovirus in the age group 37-48 months. 6.5% of females and 6.7% of males were infected with adenovirus. There was a significant incidence of viral infection, bacterial/parasitic infection and Rota virus among the children, with a low prevalence recorded for adenovirus. The males were more predisposed to Rota virus than males
Co-infection could cause difficulties for pediatricians and health care workers in terms of the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of diarrhea in children. More studies are necessary in order to evaluate this area so as to further elucidate this problem in Cameroon.
Kosek M., Bern C., and Guerrant R.L. The global burden of diarrhoeal diseases, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull world Health organ, 81(3): 197-204, 2003.
O’Ryan M, Prado V, Pickering LK. A millennium update on pediatric diarrhoeal illness in the developing world. Semin Pedriatr Infect Dis, 16(2): 125-136, 2005.
Bryce J., Boschi-pinto C., Shibuya K., Black RE. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet, 365(9409: 1147-1152, 2005.
El Mohamady H., Abdel-Messih IA, Youssef FG, Said M, Farag H, Shaheen HI., et al. Enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in children in Fayoum, Egypt. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56, 1–5, 2006.
Albert M J., Faruque ASG, Faruque SM, Sack RB. & Mahalanabis D. Case–control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3458–3464, 1999.
Bok K, Castagnaro N, Borsa A, Nates S, Espul C, Fay O. Surveillance for rotavirus in Argentina. J. Med. Virol. 65:190-198, 2001.
Fang ZY, Yang H,. Zhang J, Li YF, Hou AC, Ma L, et al. Child rotavirus infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in two Chinese sentinel hospitals. Pediatr. Int. 42:401-405, 2000.
Gentsch JR, Woods PA, Ramachandran M, Das BK, Leite JP, Alfieri A, et al. Review of G and P typing results from a global collection of rotavirus strains: implication for vaccine development. J. Infect. Dis; 174:S30-6, 1996.
Clark B, and McKendrick M.. A review of viral gastroenteritis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 17:461-469, 2004.
Mathew D, Esona G, Armah E, and Duncan S. Molecular epidemiology of Rotavirus infection in Western Cameroon, Inf. Dis 3: 221-229, 2003.
El Sheikh SM. & El Assouli SM. Prevalence of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J. Health. Popul.Nutr. 19, 25–30, 2001.
Bui Thi TH, Do TT, Flemming S, Phung DC, Kåre M and Anders D. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and other causes of childhood diarrhoea: a case–control study in children living in a wastewater-use area in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2007.
Mølbak K, Wested N, Højlyng N, Scheutz F, Gottschau A, Aaby P. et al. The etiology of early childhood diarrhea: a community study from Guinea-Bissau. J Infect Dis 169, 581–587, 1994.
Mimri LF. & Meqdam M. Enteropathogens associated with cases of gastroenteritis in a rural population in Jordan. Clin Microbiol Infect 10, 634–639, 2004.
Glass RI, Lew JF, Gangarosa RE, LeBaron CW, and Ho MS. Estimates of morbidity and mortality rates for diarrheal diseases in American children. J. Pediatr. 118:S27-S33, 1991.
Barnes GL, Uren E, Stevens KB and Bishop RF. Etiology of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Melbourne, Australia, from April 1980 to March 1993. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:133-138, 1998.
Khetawat D, Ghosh T, Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, and Chakrabarti S. Molecular characterization of the VP7 gene of rotavirus isolated from a clinical sample of Calcutta, India. Virus Res. 74:53-58, 2001.
Staat M. Azimi APH, Berke T, Roberts N, Bernstein DI, Ward RL, et al. Clinical presentations of rotavirus infection among hospitalized children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:221-227, 2002.
Jiang B, Gentsch JR, and Glass RI. The role of serum antibodies in the protection against rotavirus disease: an overview. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:1351-1361, 2002.
Nishio OK. Matsui DT. Lan H, Ushijima B, and Isomura S. Rotavirus infection among infants with diarrhea in Vietnam. Pediatr. Int. 42:422-424, 2000.
Qiao H, Nilsson M, Abreu ER, Hedlund KO, Johansen K, Zaori G, and Svensson L. Viral diarrhea in children in Beijing, China. J. Med. Virol. 57:390-396, 1999.
Rytlewska MW, Bako B, Ratajczak A, Marek A, Gwizdek D, Czarnecka-Rudnik, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of rotaviral diarrhoea in children from Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot India. Med. Sci. Monit. 6:117-122, 2000.
Diaz AI, Rivero RZ, Bracho MA, Castellanos S M., Acurero E, Calchi LM. et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Rev Med Chil 134, 72–78, and 2006.
Curtis V, Cairncross S, Yonli R. Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea- pinpointing the problem. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 5(1):22-32, 2000.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.