Enteric prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus in under five children predisposed to acute diarrhea in yaounde-cameroon.

VN Ngum, D Adiogo, KH Gonsu, EA Tembe-Fokunang, Marie Thérèse Abena Obama

Abstract


Introduction: Acute diarrhea in tropical countries can be caused by a broad spectrum of viral, parasitic, and bacterial enteropathogens. 

The characteristics of the epidemiology of rotavirus and adenovirus worldwide needs to be considered in the process of vaccine development. Acute diarrhea in tropical countries can be caused by a broad spectrum of viral, parasitic and bacterial enteropathogens.

Objectives:The main objective of this study was to identify Rotavirus and Adenovirus in under five children predisposed with acute diarrhea in Yaoundé-Cameroon using VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test kit (BioMérieux, France).

Methodology:A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in under five children presenting with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in the Yaoundé municipality namely; Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH), Chantal Biya Foundation (CIRCB), Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatrics Hospital (GOPHY), and the District Hospital Biyem-assi, from April 2008 to September 2008.

 Stool samples were collected in sterile stool containers following microbiologically approved methods. Wet preparations of the different samples were examine for the presence of parasites, red cells, white cells, and yeast cells. The samples were analyzed for rotavirus and adenovirus by immunochromatographic method using the VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test kit.

  Result: A total of 61 children presenting with acute diarrhoea were recruited into the study during the study period. The mean (+ SD) age of the study participants was 15.02 + 13.7months (range 2 – 59 months). There were 30 (49.2%) males and 31 (50.8%) females. The mean (+ SD) ages of the male and female recruits were 16.60+ 15.07 and 13.48 + 12.29 months respectively.

An enteric pathogen incidence of 85.3% was detected in the children. This study showed a rotavirus prevalence of 32.8% in children with acute diarrhea. A significant difference was observed when the prevalence of rotavirus in males (46.7%) was compared to that of females (19.4%), (P=0.04). It was also observed that 41.0% of children 0-12months were most affected with rotavirus infection, while the age group 13-24 months had a prevalence of 30.7%. Three children (4.9%) were positive for both rotavirus and adenovirus. Adenovirus was detected in 6.6% of the children. The age distribution of adenovirus infection showed 7.7% prevalence in the age group 0-12 months and one case of adenovirus in the age group 37-48 months. 6.5% of females and 6.7% of males were infected with adenovirus. There was a significant incidence of viral infection, bacterial/parasitic infection and Rota virus among the children, with a low prevalence recorded for adenovirus. The males were more predisposed to Rota virus than males 

        Co-infection could cause difficulties for pediatricians and health care workers in terms of the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of diarrhea in children. More studies are necessary in order to evaluate this area so as to further elucidate this problem in Cameroon.  


Keywords


Enteric prevalence, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, E. coli, E. histolytica, Candida, Salmonella, acute diarrhea,

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