Evidence of co and triple infections of Hepatitis B and C amongst HIV infected pregnant women in Buea, Cameroon

George Mondinde Ikomey, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Becky Tanjong, Martha Tongo Mesembe, Agnes Eyoh, Emilia Lyonga, Ebot Mfoataw, Rose Ngoh, Cynthia Raissa Tamandjou, Greg Ikomey, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou

Abstract


BJECTIVES. Little data is available on the prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Co-and or triple infection during pregnancy in Cameroon as well as many other resource limited settings. HIV and Hepatitis B and C are major public health concerns world wide. Our study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C amongst HIV infected pregnant women in Buea, located in the Southwest region of Cameroon.
METHODS. A cross-sectional study of consented pregnant women were conducted from March 2015 to August 2015. HIV-1 infections were detected using the national HIV-1 test algorithms. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBe and anti- Hepatitis C (anti-HCV) were detected using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs).
RESULTS. Our study group had an HIV prevalence rate of 7.8% (N = 97 / 1230). Of the HIV-1 positive group, 14 women (17.5%; N = 97) were co-infected with HBV and 11 (11.3%; N = 97) were co-infected with HCV. 8 (8.2%; N = 97) were triple infected with HIV, HBV and HCV. Anti-HBe was detected in all 14 HBV-infected pregnant women (100% N= 14) (14/14,(95%CI: 65.8, 100%).
CONCLUSION. Co- and triple infections of HIV,Hepatitis B and C were present amongst pregnant women in Buea. Epidemiological data generated from this study are limited due to the existence of triple infected. It will nevertheless serve as a guide to the government policies to reinforce screening, treatment and prevention strategies, through its Mother–to-Child–transmission (pMTCT) Programme nationwide

Résumé
OBJECTIFS . Nous disposons de peu de données relatives à la prévalence des co- et des tri-infections entre le VIH et le virus de l’hépatite B et/ou C chez les femmes enceintes au Cameroun. Le VIH-SIDA, l’hépatite B et l’hépatite C sont tous les trois, des problèmes majeurs de santé publique dans le monde. Notre étude avait pour but d’évaluer la séroprévalence de l’hépatite B et C chez des femmes enceintes infectées par le VIH dans la ville de Buéa, située dans la région Sud-Ouest du Cameroun.
MÉTHODE. Une étude transversales a été menée de mars 2015 à Août 2015 sur des femmes enceintes consentantes. Des infections à VIH-1 ont été détectées en utilisant l’algorithme de dépistage national. L’antigène de surface du virus de l’hépatite B (HBsAg), l’anticorps anti-HBe et l’anticorps anti-hépatite C (anti-HCV) ont été détectés par dosage immuno-enzymatique (ELISA).
RÉSULTATS. Sur la population étudiée, une prévalence de 7,8 % (n = 97/1230) du VIH a été trouvée. Dans le groupe des patients VIH-1 positifs, I4 femmes (17,5% ; n = 97) étaient co-infectées par le VHB et 11 (11.2% ; n = 97) par le VHC. 8 femmes (8,2% ; n = 97) présentaient une triple infection par le VIH, le VHB et le VHC. Les anti-HBe ont été détectés chez les 14 femmes enceintes infectées par le VHB (14/14 ; IC à 95% : 39,8 , 100 %).
CONCLUSION. Des co et des tri-infections par le VIH, le VHB et/ou le VHC ont été dépistées chez des femmes enceintes vivant à Buéa. Mais les données épidémiologiques générées par cette étude sont limitées du fait de l’existence de triple infection. Ces données serviront néanmoins aux politiques gouvernementales afin d’améliorer le dépistage, le traitement et les stratégies préventives à travers le programme mondial de transmission de la mère à l’enfant.


Keywords


hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV

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