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Abstract

RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Au Cameroun, les dernières données sur l’épidémiologie clinique globale des cancers digestifs sont anciennes. L’objectif de notre travail est d’actualiser ces données, spécifiquement leur typologie et la stadification tumorale au moment du diagnostic. Patients et méthodes. Nous avons conduit une étude observationnelle descriptive avec recueil prospectif de données dans six hôpitaux de référence des deux principales villes du Cameroun. Tous les patients opérés d’un cancer digestif primitif, du 1er Janvier 2018 au 30 Juin 2020 (soit 30 mois), ont été inclus. Résultats. Nous avons colligé 278 patients durant la période d’étude. La chirurgie oncologique a représenté 8,9% de l’activité chirurgicale. L’âge moyen des patients était de 54,98±14,98 ans. La majorité était de sexe masculin (n=175 soit 55,7%) avec un sexe ratio de 1,26. Le cancer a été découvert dans la majorité des cas au décours d’une symptomatologie évocatrice (57,2%) et jamais lors d’un dépistage systématique. Les trois localisations tumorales les plus fréquentes étaient, par ordre décroissant : colorectale (n=136 soit 48,9%), pancréatique (n=53 soit 19,1%) et gastrique (n=50 soit 17,9%). Le type histologique le plus rencontré était l’adénocarcinome (60,4%). La stadification TNM montrait des tumeurs majoritairement diagnostiquées à des stades avancés (III et IV) dans 71,2% des cas (n=198). La chirurgie était palliative chez 35,5% des patients et avait été conduite en urgence dans 16,5% des cas. Conclusion. Les cancers digestifs occupent une place importante de l’activité chirurgicale dans notre contexte. Le cancer colorectal demeure le plus fréquent, suivi des cancers du pancréas. Le retard diagnostic demeure important avec une prédominance des formes avancées.


ABSTRACT
Introduction. In Cameroon, the latest data on the global clinical epidemiology of digestive cancers are old, specifically their typology and tumor staging at diagnosis. Patients and methods. We conducted a descriptive observational study with prospective data collection in six referral hospitals in the two main cities of Cameroon. All patients operated for primary digestive cancer from January 1, 2018 to June 30, 2020 (i.e. 30 months) were included. Results. We recorded 278 patients; during the study period, cancer surgery represented 8.9% of surgical activity. The mean age of the patients was 54.98 ± 14.98 years. The majority of them were male (n = 175, 55.7%) with a sex ratio of 1.26. Cancer was discovered in the majority of cases after an evocative symptomatology (57.2%) and never during systematic screening. The three most frequent tumor locations were, in decreasing order: colorectal (n = 136, 48.9%), pancreatic (n = 53, 19.1%) and gastric (n = 50, 17.9%). The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma (60.4%). TNM staging showed tumors predominantly diagnosed at advanced stages (III and IV) in 71.2% of cases (n = 198). Surgery was palliative in 35.5% of patients and was performed urgently in 16.5% of cases. Conclusion. Digestive cancers occupy an important place in surgical activity in our context. Colorectal cancer remains the most common, with a high prevalence of pancreatic cancer. The diagnostic delay remains significant with a predominance of advanced forms.

Keywords

Digestive cancers; TNM stage ; Typology ; Surgical oncology; Africa Cancers digestifs ; Stade TNM ; Typologie ; Oncologie chirurgicale ; Afrique

Article Details

How to Cite
Guy Aristide, G. A., DJOPSEU, L. K., BEUGHEUM CHASIM, C., BWELLE MOTO, G., SAVOM, E. P., Savom, E. P., EKANI BOUKAR, Y. M., Missi, A. M., ESSOMBA, A., & SOSSO, M. A. (2021). Cancers Digestifs Opérés au Cameroun : Typologie et Stadification au Moment du Diagnostic. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 22(11). Retrieved from https://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/2997

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