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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction. The first allergy to appear in infants feeding on milk that contains bovine milk protein is cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Its prevalence can reach up to 7.5% in some countries. In Cameroon, no study to our knowledge has been devoted to CMPA or at least sensitization to cow's milk (CM) in pediatrics. We wanted to search for sensitization to cow's milk in infants 0-24 months of age in the Yaoundé region and the factors that promote this sensitization. Methodology. We carried out a prospective and descriptive study in the HGOPY vaccination unit from February to April 2012 in 220 infants 0 to 24 months recruited at random. It consisted of searching for a history of atopy, signs and symptoms suggestive of allergy and carrying out prick tests with cow's milk on these infants. Results. Our sample included 220 infants, 51% girls and 49% boys. Infants on CM represented 72% of the study population against 28% for infants on breastmilk. The subjects less than 6 months old were the most represented (68.2%). The introduction of CM into the diet of infants was early with an average age of introduction of 13 +/- 7 days. Symptoms and signs suggestive of allergy were more frequent in the group of infants on CM (37.1%) than in the group on breastmilk (26.2%). Three infants had a positive prick test, given a sensitization rate of 1.4%. Conclusion. Sensitization to cow's milk as detected by the prick test is as frequent in Cameroon as in certain industrialized countries. Further studies should be carried out to find and better understand the risk factors for this sensitization.
RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. La première allergie à apparaître chez le nourrisson alimente avec du lait qui contient des protéines lactées bovines est l’allergie aux protéines du lait de vache (APLV). Sa prévalence peut atteindre 7,5 %. Au Cameroun, aucune étude à notre connaissance n’a été consacrée à l’APLV ou du moins de la sensibilisation au lait de vache en pédiatrie. Ainsi nous avons voulu rechercher la sensibilisation au lait de vache chez les nourrissons de 0-24 mois d’âge dans la région de Yaoundé et les facteurs favorisants de cette sensibilisation. Méthodologie. Nous avons réalisé une étude prospective et descriptive dans l’unité de vaccination de l’HGOPY de Février à Avril 2012 chez 220 nourrissons de 0 à 24 mois recrutés au hasard. Elle a consisté à rechercher les antécédents d’atopie, les signes et symptômes évocateurs d’allergie et à réaliser des prick tests au lait de vache à ces nourrissons. Résultats. Notre échantillon comprenait 220 nourrissons dont 51% de filles et 49% de garçons. Les nourrissons sous LV représentaient 72% de la population d’étude contre 28% pour les nourrissons sous LM. Les sujets de moins de 6 mois étaient les plus représentés (68.2%). Le taux d’AME à 1, 2, 4 et 6mois était respectivement de 62%, 51%, 38% et 28%. L’introduction du LV dans l’alimentation des nourrissons était précoce avec un âge moyen d’introduction de 13+/-7 jours. Les symptômes et signes évocateurs d’allergie étaient plus fréquents dans le groupe de nourrissons sous LV (37.1%) que dans le groupe sous LM (26.2%). Trois nourrissons avaient un prick test positif, soit un taux de sensibilisation de 1.4%. Conclusion. La sensibilisation au lait de vache recherchée par la méthode des prick tests est autant fréquente au Cameroun que dans certains pays industrialisés. Des études plus poussées pour rechercher les facteurs de risque de cette pathologie devraient être faite pour mieux comprendre et prendre en charge cette pathologie.

Keywords

Sensitization Cow milk Pediatrics Nutrition Allergie Laie de vache Pédiatrie Nutrition

Article Details

How to Cite
Eposse Ekoube Charlotte, Puepi Yolande, Epee Patricia, Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Mandeng Ma Linwa Edgar2, Mbono Ritha, Ngo Linwa Esther Éléonore, Hassanatou Iyawa, Michael Budzi Ngenge, & Mah Evelyn. (2022). Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy: Prevalence of Sensitization Using the Prick Test Method among Infants in a sub-Saharan African Country. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 24(1). Retrieved from https://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/4119

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