Prévalence des Accidents Exposant aux Produits Biologiques Potentiellement Contaminés par les Virus des Hépatites B et C chez les Agents de Santé à Ndjamena

Ali Mahamat Moussa, Assi Constant, Abdel Salam Saleh, Innocent Allarassem, Joseph Madtoingue, Mbaidoum Narassem, Ouangbi Djonga, Ouchemi Choua

Abstract



RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. Les professions sanitaires sont exposées au risque d’infection virale B et C des accidents résultant du contact professionnel avec les milieux biologiques. Les données sur les accidents exposant au sang (AES) sont rares en Afrique noire. Le but de notre étude était d’évaluer la prévalence des AES au sein du personnel soignant en milieu hospitalier à Ndjamena. Méthodes. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale réalisée du 8 Août au 8 Novembre 2015 dans cinq hôpitaux de la ville de Ndjamena à l’aide d’un questionnaire standardisé administré par des enquêteurs à des agents de santé. Résultats. le taux de participation à l’enquête était faible (34,2%). Parmi les personnes interrogées, 60,2% affirmaient avoir eu un AES, surtout des infirmiers (57%). Seuls 38% déclaraient administrativement leur accident. L’attitude après un AES était insuffisante et consistait essentiellement en une désinfection et une sérologie de la personne source (51,9%). Une formation sur les hépatites virales avait été reçue par 44 des agents interrogés (12%). La couverture vaccinale VHB, le portage des anticorps anti VHC et de l’AgHBs étaient respectivement de 38,7%, 1,6% et de 13%. Conclusion. La prévalence des AES est élevée chez les agents de santé de Ndjamena. Leurs connaissances sur les hépatites B et C sont insuffisantes. De ce fait, la mise en œuvre d’un programme de sensibilisation sur les hépatites et la vaccination du personnel s’avère indispensable.

ABSTRACT
Introduction- aim. Health professions are exposed to the risk of viral infection B and C from accidents resulting from professional contact with biological materia. Data on blood-related accidents are rare in more African countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of blood-related accidents among hospital staff in Ndjamena. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from 8 August to 8 November 2015 in five hospitals of Ndjamena using a standardized questionnaire administered by investigators to health workers. Results. The survey participation rate was low (34.2%). Among the respondents, 60.2% said they had a blood-related accident, mostly nurses (57%). Only 38% reported their accident. The attitude after blood-related accidents was insufficient and consisted essentially of disinfection and getting information about the serology data of the patient (51.9%). Training on viral hepatitis was received by 44 agents (12%). HBV vaccination coverage, anti-HCV antibodies and HBsAg carriers were 38.7%, 1.6% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion. The prevalence of BRA is high among hospital staff of Ndjamena. Their knowledge about hepatitis B and C is insufficient. The implementation of an awareness program on hepatitis and vaccination is mandatory.


Keywords


Hépatites B et C, accident exposant au sang, professionnels de santé, aptitudes, Ndjamena.

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References


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