Mortality of Low Birth Weight Neonates in a Tertiary Care Centre of Yaounde (Cameroon)

Suzanne Sap Ngo Um, Serge Paule Kana, Vera Ngo Njock, Grace Abondo, Paul Olivier Koki

Abstract


ABSTRACT
Background and objective. Neonatal mortality remains high in low-income countries. Mortality risk of low birthweight (LBW) is the highest. With aim to describe trends on mortality and death causes of LBW in a neonatal care centre in a 7 years period, we did the present study. Methods. We did an observational retrospective study in a single care centre. This study population comprised all LBW infants admitted to the unit, from 2009 to 2016, weighing < 2500 g irrespective of gestational age. The main outcome was the percentage of LBW infants discharged alive during the study period. We also noted the diagnosis related to death of those who died before discharge. Results. During the study period, 10590 newborns were admitted in neonatology unit from which 2625 (24.78%) had LBW. Nine LBW on ten were discharged alive. The main causes of death were neonatal infection, complications of birth asphyxia and congenital malformations. Conclusion. Mortality rate of LBW neonates in our centre is 9.1%. The main causes of death are neonatal infections, birth asphyxia and surgical emergencies. Advocacy to improve quality of care together with a strong neonatal network may be helpful to reduce in-hospital neonatal mortality.
RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. La mortalité néonatale est élevée dans les pays à ressources limitées et elle est encore plus élevée en cas de petit poids de naissance (PPN). L’objectif de ce travail est de décrire l’évolution et les causes de la mortalité néonatale dans une structure de santé de référence de Yaoundé sur une période de sept ans. Méthodes. Il s’agit d’ue étude transversale descriptive et analytique effectuée au entre mère enfant de la fondation chant Biya de Yaoundé. Nous avons inclus tous les enfants admis dans ce centre, avec un poids de naissance de 2500 G, quel que soit l^’âge gestationnel à l’accouchement. Nos variables d’intérêt étaient l’état à la sortie (vivant ou mort) et la cause du décès éventuel. Résultats. Au cours de la période d’étude, 10590 nouveau-nés ont été admis au service de néonatalogie et 2625 (24.78%) avaient un petit poids de naissance.  La mortalité moyenne de la période était de 9.1% (8 à 24%). Les trois principales causes de mortalité étaient  l’infection néonatale, l’asphyxie néonatale et les malformations congénitales. Conclusion. La mortalité néonatale moyenne des enfants à petit poids de naissance est de 9.1%. Les principales causes de mortalité sont l’infection néonatale, les complications de l’asphyxie néonatale et les malformations congénitales chirurgicales. Pour réduire ces chiffres, des efforts orientés vers l’amélioration des soins d’urgence aux nouveau-nés associés à une mise en réseau des structures de soins sont nécessaires.

Keywords


Neonatal mortality, low birthweight, neonatal infections, birth asphyxia, Cameroon

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