Main Article Content

Abstract

RÉSUMÉ
Introduction. La pédiculose reste endémique en Afrique sub-Saharienne.  Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence et les facteurs associés à la pédiculose en milieu scolaire. Méthodologie. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale menée en Avril 2015 dans l’aire de santé de Magba. Nous avons inclus les élèves de 3 écoles primaires sélectionnées au hasard et dont les parents/tuteurs avaient donné leur consentement. Le diagnostic positif de la pédiculose a été essentiellement clinique. L’échantillonnage était consécutif et exhaustif. Résultats. Au total, 400 élèves à prédominance féminine (65%) ont été enrôlés. La prévalence globale de la pédiculose était de 20,8%. La tranche d’âge la plus touchée était celle de 5 à 8 ans. Les filles étaient les plus touchées (27% ; p<0,001). Nous avons noté 78,3% de cas d’antécédents d’infestation, 56,9% d’entre eux avaient été traités par de l’ivermectine. Le prurit. était le principal symptôme (83,1%%). L’analyse multifactorielle a permis de relever que les antécédents d’infestation, le nombre de personnes par ménage, la longueur des cheveux constituaient les facteurs associés indépendants significatifs. Conclusion. La pédiculose est fréquente en milieu scolaire camerounais, notamment dans l’aire de santé de Magba, avec une forte prévalence (20,8%) et touche les enfants des deux sexes, avec une nette prédominance féminine.
ABSTRACT
Introduction. Pediculosis remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa.  The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with pediculosis in schools. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in April 2015 in the Magba health area. We included students from 3 randomly selected primary schools whose parents/guardians had given their consent. The positive diagnosis of pediculosis was essentially clinical. The sampling was consecutive and exhaustive. Results. A total of 400 predominantly female students (65%) were enrolled. The overall prevalence of pediculosis was 20.8%. The most affected age group was between 5 and 8 years old. Girls were the most affected (27%; p<0.001). We noted 78.3% of cases with a history of infestation, 56.9% of which had been treated with ivermectin. Pruritus was the main symptom (83.1%). Multifactorial analysis revealed that history of infestation, number of people per household, and hair length were the significant independent associated factors. Conclusion. Pediculosis is frequent in Cameroonian schools, particularly in the health area of Magba, with a high prevalence (20.8%) and affects children of both sexes, with a clear predominance of females.

Article Details

Author Biography

Emmanuel Armand Kouotou, FMBS

Medical Imaging
How to Cite
Kouotou, E. A., Dambie Kouabou, E. S., & Moyou Somo, R. (2021). Pédiculose en Milieu Scolaire Camerounais: Prévalence et Facteurs Associés. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 22(2). Retrieved from http://hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/2524

References

  1. Motovali-Emami M, Aflatoonian MR, Fekri A, Yazdi M. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008; 11(2):260-4.
  2. Maillard A, Michaud M, Eicher N, Toutous-Trellu L, Laffitte E. Prise en charge des pédiculoses en 2012. Rev Med Suisse. 2012 ; 8 :726-33
  3. Heid E, Taieb A, Crickx B, Berbis P. Ectoparasitoses cutanées: Gale et Pédiculose. Examen National Classant. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2002; 129:2S25-8
  4. Bouvresse S, Chosidow O. Ectoparasitose cutanée: Gale et Pédiculose. La revue du practicien.2011 Juin; 61:867-73
  5. Moshki M, Zamani-Alavijeh F, Mojadam M. Efficacy of peer education for adopting preventive behaviors against head lice infestation in female elementary school students : A randomised controlled trial. PLoSOne. 2017 Jan 10; 2(1)
  6. Chosidow O. Pédiculose du cuir chevelu et gale ; Nouvelle recommandation et enjeux actuel. Ann Dermatol Venereol.2004 ; 355 : 819-26
  7. Rassami W, Soonwera M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Nov; 2(11): 901–4.
  8. Reusens N, Poelman T. Diagnostic de pédiculose du cuir chevelu: inspection ou peignage? Minerva.2010 ; 9(5) : 62-3
  9. Karaaslan S, Yılmaz H. The Distribution of Pediculus humanus capitis Among Primary School Pupils of the Turkish Chamber of Commerce and Stock Exchange Organisation in Van. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2015 Mar; 39(1):27-32.
  10. Lesshafft H, Baier A, Guerra H, Terashima A, Feldmeier H. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru. J Glob Infect Dis. 2013 Oct-Dec; 5(4): 138–43.
  11. Menan EI, N'Guessan G, Kiki-Barro PC, Nébavi NG, Adjetey TA, Koné M. Scalp pediculosis in school environment in the city of Abidjan: prevalence and influence of socioeconomic conditions. Santé. 1999 Jan-Feb;9 (1):32-7.
  12. Salehi S, Ban M, Motaghi M. A Study of head lice infestation (Pediculosis capitis) among primary school students in the village of Abadan in 2012. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. July 2010; 2(3): 196-200
  13. Ebomoyi EW. Pediculosis capitis among urban school children in Ilorin, Nigeria. J Natl Med Assoc. 1994 Nov; 86(11): 861–4.
  14. Gazmuri BP, Arriaza TB, Castro SF, González NP, Maripan VK, Saavedra RI. Epidemiological study of Pediculosis in elementary schools of Arica, northern Chile. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2014 Jun; 85(3):312-8.
  15. AlBashtawy M, Hasna F. Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan. EMHJ 2012;18 (1): 43-8
  16. Tappeh KH, Chavshin AR, Hajipirloo HM , Khashaveh S, Hanifian H, Bozorgomid A et al. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2012; 6(1): 79–85.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.