Impact du traitement de masse de la filariose lymphatique par l’albendazole-ivermectine en zone de savane : cas de la région de l’Est du Burkina

Amina Nomtondo Ouedraogo, Emile Bégnouriti Somda, Fagnima Traoré, Muriel Sidnoma Ouédraogo, Gilbert Patrice Tapsoba, Angèle Ouangre/Ouédraogo, Salamata Bara, Lidwine Mariam Traoré, Seraphine Zeba/Lompo, Fatou Barro-Traoré, Adama Traoré, Pascal Niamba

Abstract


But. La filariose lymphatique maladie tropicale négligée, débilitante à transmission vectorielle existe en Afrique, Asie et Amérique du Sud. Près de 119 millions de personnes en sont infectées. L’une des stratégies de lutte consiste en l’interruption de la transmission du parasite par l’administration annuelle d’une dose unique de diéthylcarbamazine ou d’ivermectine-albendazole aux personnes exposées en zone d’endémie (prévalence microfilarémie > 1%). Après onze tours de traitement de masse (TDM), nous avons voulu évaluer l’impact du TDM sur la transmission du parasite. Méthodologie. Une étude prospective transversale menée dans 6 sites de février à mars 2014. Ont été inclus toutes personnes résidentes consentantes âgés de plus de 5 ans. Les variables étudiées étaient la fréquence du lymphoedème et de l’hydrocèle, la prévalence de la microfilarémie, la densité parasitaire moyenne et la transmission du parasite.
Résultats. Nous avons recruté 2773 personnes (1302 hommes et 1471 femmes), d’une moyenne d’âge de 22,73 ans. Le taux de couverture thérapeutique était de 80% durant les onze TDM. La fréquence de lymphoedème était de 1,33%, et celle de l’hydrocèle de 1,69%. La prévalence de la microfilarémie était 1,8%. La densité parasitaire moyenne était 157 mf/ml. La réduction de la prévalence microfilarienne était de 95,14% en onze TDM dans la région de l’Est du Burkina en 12 ans. Conclusion. L’impact du traitement de masse est réel, mais la transmission du parasite n’a pas été interrompue.
ABSTRACT
Introduction: Lymphatic Filariasis neglected tropical disease, debilitating vector-borne exists in Africa, Asia and South America. Nearly 119 million people are infected. One of the strategies involves the interruption of parasite transmission by the annual administration of a single dose of diéthylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin-albendazole to exposed persons in endemic areas (prevalence microfilaremia> 1%). After 11 rounds of mass Drug Administration (MDA), we wanted to assess the impact of MDA on parasite transmission in East region of Burkina Faso. Methodology: This was a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study. It was conducted in 6 sites in the region from February to March 2014. Were included all consenting resident persons over 5 years. Studied variables were: frequency of lymphedema and hydrocele, prevalence de la microfilaremia, mean parasite density and parasite transmission.
Results: We recruited 2773 people (1302 men and 1471 women), mean age of 22.73 years, 94.93% had received at least once MDA and 23.34% received 6. The therapeutic coverage was about 80% during the 11 MDA. The frequency of lymphoedema was 1.33% and 1.69% for hydrocele. The prevalence of microfilaria was 1.8%. The mean parasite density was 157 mf / ml. The reduction of microfilaria prevalence was 95.14% in 11 MDA in eastern region of Burkina. Conclusion. The impact of MDA is real; however, the transmission is not interrupted yet.


Keywords


Microfilaremia, therapeutic coverage rate, Lymphoedema, Hydrocele, Wuchereria bancrofti, Subsaharian Africa

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