Peripheral Retinal Degenerative Lesions in Myopic Patients at the Yaoundé Central Hospital

VA Dohvoma, SR Ebana Mvogo, AF Nomo, E Epee, D Owono, ME Akono Zoua, TC Mvilongo, MB Nguena, C Ebana Mvogo

Abstract


Purpose. To describe peripheral retinal degenerations in myopic eyes in a hospital-based setting.
Patients and methods. Myopic patients aged at least 5 years old seen between January and December 2015 in whom peripheral retinal examination was done using a 3-mirror lens were included. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalence of ≤ -0.50 D on automatic refraction (following cycloplegia with cyclopentolate and tropicamide in patients < 40 years). Myopia < - 6 D was considered pathologic. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions and a significance level was set at 5%.
Results. A total of 74 eyes of 37 patients (of whom 62.2% females) were included. The age group of 20-30 years represented 37.8%. Non-pathologic myopia was present in 42 eyes (56.8%). The prevalence of degenerative lesions was 89.5% (95.2% in those with non-pathologic myopia and 87.5% in those with pathologic myopia) P=0.227. The most frequent degenerations were snowflakes, white without pressure and pigmentary degeneration. Lattice degeneration and retinal hole were found in 8.1% (n=6) and 9.5% (n=7) of eyes respectively. Lattice degeneration occurred more frequently in pathologic myopia, though the difference was not significant (15.6% vs 4.8%; p=0.1). Retinal hole was more common in eyes with pathologic myopia (p=0.03).
Conclusion. Careful examination of the peripheral retina is recommended in all forms of myopia. Patient education on vitreous and retinal detachment symptoms and the need to seek urgent care is essential.

RÉSUMÉ
But de l’étude. Décrire les lésions dégénératives de la périphérie rétinienne observées chez des sujets myopes en milieu hospitalier.
Patients et méthodes. Nous avons colligé tous les dossiers des patients myopes âgés d’au moins 5 ans reçus de Janvier à Décembre 2015 et chez qui un examen au verre à trois miroirs de Goldman avait été réalisé. L’œil est considéré myope si l’équivalence sphérique est ≤ -0,50D après réfractométrie automatique (avec une cycloplégie systématique chez les patients de moins de 40 ans). Une myopie ˂- 6 D est considérée comme pathologique. Le test de khi-carré a été utilisé pour comparer les proportions avec un seuil de significativité p ≤ 5%.
Résultats. Nous avons retenu 37 patients (74 yeux) parmi lesquels 62,2% étaient des femmes. La tranche d’âge de 20 à 30 ans regroupe 37,8% des patients. Pour 42 yeux (56,8%), la myopie n’est pas pathologique. La prévalence des lésions dégénératives est de 89,5% (95.2% chez les patients avec une myopie non pathologique et 87.5% dans le groupe opposé). Les dégénérescences les plus fréquentes sont les givres, les blancs sans pression et les dégénérescences pigmentaires. Les dégénérescences palissadiques et les trous rétiniens ont été observés dans 8,1% (n=6) et 9,5% (n=7) des cas respectivement. Ces deux lésions sont les plus fréquentes dans les cas de myopie pathologique.
Conclusion. Un examen minutieux de la périphérie rétinienne doit être systématique chez tous les patients myopes. L’éducation est essentielle pour la prévention et la prise en charge précoce des complications de la myopie.


Keywords


myopia, retinal hole, lattice degeneration

Full Text:

PDF

References


Holden B, Sankaridurg P, Smith E, Aller T, Jong M, He M. Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control. Eye. 2014 Feb;28(2):142–6.

Ebana Mvogo C, Bella-Hiag AL, Ellong A, Metogo Mbarga B, Litumbe NC. Les amétropies statiques du noir camerounais. Ophthalmologica. 2001 Apr 20;215(3):212–6.

Pan C-W, Cheng C-Y, Saw S-M, Wang JJ, Wong TY. Myopia and age-related cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov;156(5):1021–33.e1.

Marcus MW, de Vries MM, Junoy Montolio FG, Jansonius NM. Myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct;118(10):1989–94.e2.

Pierro L, Camesasca FI, Mischi M, Brancato R. Peripheral retinal changes and axial myopia. Retina Phila Pa. 1992;12(1):12–7.

Vongphanit J, Mitchell P, Wang JJ. Prevalence and progression of myopic retinopathy in an older population. Ophthalmology. 2002 Apr;109(4):704–11.

Nwosu SN, Akudinobi C, Ndulue J. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Nigeria. Niger J Ophthalmol. 2014;22(2):69.

Maduka Okafor FC, Okoye OI, Eze BI. Myopia: a review of literature. Niger J Med J Natl Assoc Resid Dr Niger. 2009 Jun;18(2):134–8.

Bansal AS, Hubbard GB. Peripheral retinal findings in highly myopic children ≤10 years of age. Retina Phila Pa. 2010 Apr;30(4 Suppl):S15–9.

Lai TYY, Fan DSP, Lai WWK, Lam DSC. Peripheral and posterior pole retinal lesions in association with high myopia: a cross-sectional community-based study in Hong Kong. Eye Lond Engl. 2008 Feb;22(2):209–13.

Yura T. The relationship between the types of axial elongation and the prevalence of lattice degeneration of the retina. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1998 Feb;76(1):90–5.

Ndiaye PA, Koffane RRJ, Wade A, Ndiaye CS, Gomez JC, Ndiaye MR. Fréquence des lésions rhegmatogènes chez le myope mélanoderme. /data/revues/01815512/00240009/927/ [Internet]. 2008 Aug 3 [cited 2016 Sep 1]; Available from: http://www.em-consulte.com/en/article/111670

Hyams SW, Neumann E. Peripheral retina in myopia. With particular reference to retinal breaks. Br J Ophthalmol. 1969 May;53(5):300–6.

Zejmo M, Formińska-Kapuścik M, Pieczara E, Filipek E, Mrukwa-Kominek E, Samochowiec-Donocik E, et al. Etiopathogenesis and management of high-degree myopia. Part I. Med Sci Monit Int Med J Exp Clin Res. 2009 Sep;15(9):RA199–202.

Gözüm N, Cakir M, Gücukoglu A, Sezen F. Relationship between retinal lesions and axial length, age and sex in high myopia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1997 Sep;7(3):277–82.

Karlin DB, Curtin BJ. Peripheral Chorioretinal Lesions and Axial Length of the Myopic Eye. Am J Ophthalmol. 1976 mai;81(5):625–35.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

********************************************************************************************