Aspects Épidémiologiques, Cliniques et Évolutifs des Enfants Admis en Réanimation Polyvalente au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville

Marie Elombila, CM Mpoy Emy Monkessa, PD Mawandza, MA Nde Ngala Bokoba, G Niengo Outsouta, GF Otiobanda

Abstract


RÉSUMÉ
Objectif. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des enfants admis en réanimation polyvalente au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville. Matériels et méthodes. Il agit d’une étude transversale rétrospective, descriptive réalisée en réanimation polyvalente du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville du 1er décembre 2014 au 28 février 2018 (39 mois). Ont été inclus tous les enfants de moins de 16 ans admis dans le service. Les variables suivantes ont été analysées : âge, sexe, provenance, motif d’admission, évolution, durée de séjour. Résultats. Durant la période d’étude, 86 enfants ont été admis sur 2112 patients soit une fréquence de 4,1 %. Leur âge moyen était de 8,9 ± 5,5 ans. Le sex ratio était de 1,52. Dans 48,8 % des cas, les patients provenaient du bloc opératoire et dans 24,4% du service de soins intensifs pédiatriques. Le motif d’admission le plus fréquent était la surveillance postopératoire (26,7 %), suivi de la détresse respiratoire (18,6%) et de l’état de mal convulsif (16,3%). Le taux de mortalité était de 38,4 %. La durée moyenne de séjour était de 3,1 ±1,4 jours. Conclusion. Les admissions pédiatriques représentent environ 4 % des admissions totales. Elles proviennent majoritairement du bloc opératoire et du service de soins intensifs pédiatriques. Le taux de mortalité est élevé. Une formation spécifique du personnel à l’anesthésie-réanimation pédiatrique, ainsi qu’un plateau technique adéquat pourraient permettre de réduire ce taux de mortalité.
ABSTRACT
Aim. To describe the epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of children admitted to polyvalent intensive care unit at the University Teaching Hospital of Brazzaville. Materials and methods. This was a cross sectional retrospective, descriptive study carried out in polyvalent intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Brazzaville from december 1, 2014 to february 28, 2018 (39 months). All children under the age of 16 admitted to the service were included. The following variables were studied: age, sex, origin, reason for admission, outcomes, length of stay. Results. During our study period, 86 children were admitted out of 2112 patients (4.1%). Their mean age was 8.9± 5.5 years. The sex ratio was 1.52. The patients came from the operating room in 48.8% of cases and from the pediatric intensive care unit in 24.4%. The most common reason for admission was postoperative monitoring (26.7%) followed by respiratory distress (18.6%) and seizure (16.3%). The mortality rate was 38.4%. The mean length of stay was 3.1± 1.4 days. Conclusion. Pediatric admissions represented 4.1% of total admissions. They come mainly from the operating room and the pediatric intensive care unit. The mortality rate is high. Specific training of staff in pediatric resuscitation, as well as an adequate technical platform will undoubtedly reduce this mortality rate.

Keywords


Enfants, réanimation polyvalente, Congo

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